Mental retardation history and symptoms

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Chelsea Mae Nobleza, M.D.[2]


The majority of patients with [disease name] are asymptomatic.


The hallmark of [disease name] is [finding]. A positive history of [finding 1] and [finding 2] is suggestive of [disease name]. The most common symptoms of [disease name] include [symptom 1], [symptom 2], and [symptom 3]. Common symptoms of [disease] include [symptom 1], [symptom 2], and [symptom 3]. Less common symptoms of [disease name] include [symptom 1], [symptom 2], and [symptom 3].

History and Symptoms


History should focus on the birth and developmental history of the child. This would include the chief complaints arranged in chronological order and a comprehensive prenatal and perinatal history. Developmental history in the following domains should be evaluated: motor, language, communication and ability for self-care; socioeconomic, cognition and occupational/recreational activities. Medical comorbidities and psychiatric history must also be obtained as well as a comprehensive family history including a pedigree construction, background, and current living conditions. [1]


Hallmark symptoms of intellectual disability: [2]

  1. Delayed learning of new knowledge and skills
  2. Immature social skills
  3. Limited self-care skills

Behavioral problems also occur in these patients and they are usually precipitated by different factors such as:

  1. Improper training in what is a socially acceptable behavior
  2. Inconsistent discipline
  3. Reinforcement of maladaptive behavior
  4. Impaired communication skills
  5. Co-existing physical and mental disorders such as anxiety and depression.

Symptoms that may point to a genetic metabolic disorder include failure to thrive, lethargy, vomiting, seizures, hypotonia, hepatomegaly, coarse facies, macroglossia. On the other hand, the comorbid neuromuscular disease may be suspected in patients with developmental delays in gross motor skills, fine motor skills such as pincer grasp.


  1. Kishore MT, Udipi GA, Seshadri SP (January 2019). "Clinical Practice Guidelines for Assessment and Management of intellectual disability". Indian J Psychiatry. 61 (Suppl 2): 194–210. doi:10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry_507_18. PMC 6345136. PMID 30745696.
  2. "Intellectual Disability - Pediatrics - MSD Manual Professional Edition".