Intravenous leiomyomatosis

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Template:Sonia Sandeep Sahar Memar Montazerin, M.D.[2]
Synonyms and Keywords: Nesidioblastoma, IVLM

Overview

Intravenous leiomyomatosis is also refered as IVL. Intravenous leiomyomatosis is characterized by the extension into venous channels of histologically benign smooth muscle tumor arising from either the wall of a vessel or from a uterine leiomyoma. The etiology of intravenous leiomyomatosis is unclear. Intravenous leiomyomatosis must be differentiated from other diseases such as renal malignancies and sarcomas. The median age is 45 years, with patients age ranging from 26 to 70 years old. Only females may develop intravenous leiomyomatosis. Findings on CT scan diagnostic of intravenous leiomyomatosis include an irregular mass exhibiting heterogeneous enhancement with extension into adjacent veins. Findings on an ultrasound imaging diagnostic of intravenous Leiomyomatosis include a vascularized thrombi within the pelvic veins and Inferior vena cava. Findings on MRI diagnostic of intravenous leiomyomatosis include a leiomyomatous lesion or a distorted uterus with projections into vasculature. Surgery is the mainstay of therapy for intravenous leiomyomatosis. It can grow into lymphatics /veins.

Historical Perspective

Classification

  • There is no established system for the classification of intravenous leiomyomatosis.

Pathophysiology

Causes

  • The etiology of intravenous leiomyomatosis is unclear.[7]

Differentiating Intravenous Leiomyomatosis from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

  • There is no available data on the exact incidence of intravenous leiomyomatosis.
  • The median age at the time of diagnosis of IVL is 45 years, with patients age ranging from 26 to 70 years old. [9]
  • Female are exclusively affected with intravenous leiomyomatosis.[10]
  • Intravenous leiomyomatosis is seen more commonly in white females.[11]

Risk Factors

Screening

  • There is insufficient evidence to recommend routine screening for intravenous leiomyomatosis.

Natural History, Complications and Prognosis

Diagnosis

Diagnostic Criteria

History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings

  • There are no specific laboratory findings associated with intravenous Leiomyomatosis.

Electrocardiogram

  • There are no ECG findings associated with intravenous Leiomyomatosis.

X-ray

  • There are no x-ray findings associated with intravenous Leiomyomatosis.

Echocardiography or Ultrasound

CT scan

MRI

Other Imaging Findings

  • There are no other imaging findings associated with intravenous leiomyomatosis.

Other Diagnostic Studies

  • There are no other diagnostic studies associated with intravenous leiomyomatosis.

Treatment

Medical Therapy

  • There is no treatment for intravenous leiomyomatosis.

Surgery

  • Surgery is the treatment of choice, and complete removal of the tumor is mandatory.
  • Recurrences may occur up to 15 years after the primary occurrence in patients with Incomplete resection of the tumor.[24]
  • Bilateral oophorectomy causes shutdown of hormonal stimulation hence helps preventing recurrence.[25]
  • Surgical removal can be done in single or staged procedures.[26]

Primary Prevention

Secondary Prevention

References

  1. Quade BJ, Dal Cin P, Neskey DM, Weremowicz S, Morton CC (2002). "Intravenous leiomyomatosis: molecular and cytogenetic analysis of a case". Mod Pathol. 15 (3): 351–6. doi:10.1038/modpathol.3880529. PMID 11904348.
  2. Stolf NA, dos Santos GG, Haddad VL (1999). "Unusual abdominal tumors with intracardiac extension. Two cases with successful surgical resection". Rev Hosp Clin Fac Med Sao Paulo. 54 (5): 159–64. PMID 10788838.
  3. Mariyappa N, Manikyam UK, Krishnamurthy D, Preeti K, Agarwal Y, Prakar U (2012). "Intravenous leiomyomatosis". Niger J Surg. 18 (2): 105–6. doi:10.4103/1117-6806.103122. PMC 3762011. PMID 24027407.
  4. Dal Cin P, Quade BJ, Neskey DM, Kleinman MS, Weremowicz S, Morton CC (2003). "Intravenous leiomyomatosis is characterized by a der(14)t(12;14)(q15;q24)". Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 36 (2): 205–6. doi:10.1002/gcc.10159. PMID 12508249.
  5. Dal Cin P, Quade BJ, Neskey DM, Kleinman MS, Weremowicz S, Morton CC (2003). "Intravenous leiomyomatosis is characterized by a der(14)t(12;14)(q15;q24)". Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 36 (2): 205–6. doi:10.1002/gcc.10159. PMID 12508249.
  6. Quade BJ, Dal Cin P, Neskey DM, Weremowicz S, Morton CC (2002). "Intravenous leiomyomatosis: molecular and cytogenetic analysis of a case". Mod Pathol. 15 (3): 351–6. doi:10.1038/modpathol.3880529. PMID 11904348.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 Fasih, Najla; Prasad Shanbhogue, Alampady K.; Macdonald, David B.; Fraser-Hill, Margaret A.; Papadatos, Demetrios; Kielar, Ania Z.; Doherty, Geoffrey P.; Walsh, Cynthia; McInnes, Matthew; Atri, Mostafa (2008). "Leiomyomas beyond the Uterus: Unusual Locations, Rare Manifestations". RadioGraphics. 28 (7): 1931–1948. doi:10.1148/rg.287085095. ISSN 0271-5333.
  8. Lee, Sak; Kim, Do-Kyun; Narm, Kyoung Shik; Cho, Sang-Ho (2011). "Pulmonary Artery Embolization of Intravenous Leiomyomatosis Extending into the Right Atrium". The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 44 (3): 243–246. doi:10.5090/kjtcs.2011.44.3.243. ISSN 2233-601X.
  9. Canzonieri V, D'Amore ES, Bartoloni G, Piazza M, Blandamura S, Carbone A (1994). "Leiomyomatosis with vascular invasion. A unified pathogenesis regarding leiomyoma with vascular microinvasion, benign metastasizing leiomyoma and intravenous leiomyomatosis". Virchows Arch. 425 (5): 541–5. PMID 7850080.
  10. Poliquin V, Victory R, Vilos GA (2008). "Epidemiology, presentation, and management of retroperitoneal leiomyomata: systematic literature review and case report". J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 15 (2): 152–60. doi:10.1016/j.jmig.2007.12.009. PMID 18312983.
  11. Poliquin V, Victory R, Vilos GA (2008). "Epidemiology, presentation, and management of retroperitoneal leiomyomata: systematic literature review and case report". J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 15 (2): 152–60. doi:10.1016/j.jmig.2007.12.009. PMID 18312983.
  12. Leitman, M.; Kuperstein, R.; Medalion, B.; Stamler, A.; Porat, E.; Rosenblatt, S.; Konen, E.; Krakover, R.; Vered, Z. (2008). "A highly unusual right atrial mass presented in two women". European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging. 9 (6): 833–834. doi:10.1093/ejechocard/jen173. ISSN 2047-2412.
  13. Schäfer HM, Isaak A, Gürke L (2017). "Case report of an intracaval leiomyomatosis 10 months after complete hysterectomy". Int J Surg Case Rep. 35: 1–3. doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2017.03.031. PMC 5394212. PMID 28414995.
  14. Kocica, Mladen J.; Vranes, Mile R.; Kostic, Dusan; Kostic, Natasa Kovacevic-; Lackovic, Vesna; Mihajlovic, Vesna Bozic-; Velinovic, Milos M.; Mikic, Aleksandar Dj.; Kalezic, Nevena Dimitrijevic- (2005). "Intravenous leiomyomatosis with extension to the heart: Rare or underestimated?". The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 130 (6): 1724–1726. doi:10.1016/j.jtcvs.2005.08.021. ISSN 0022-5223.
  15. Evans AT, Symmonds RE, Gaffey TA (February 1981). "Recurrent pelvic intravenous leiomyomatosis". Obstet Gynecol. 57 (2): 260–4. PMID 7465135.
  16. Awonuga, Awoniyi O.; Rotas, Michael; Imudia, Anthony N.; Choi, Christine; Khulpateea, Neekianund (2008). "Recurrent benign metastasizing leiomyoma after hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy". Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 278 (4): 373–376. doi:10.1007/s00404-008-0581-z. ISSN 0932-0067.
  17. Nakayama Y, Kitamura S, Kawachi K, Kawata T, Fukutomi M, Hasegawa J; et al. (1994). "Intravenous leiomyomatosis extending into the right atrium". Cardiovasc Surg. 2 (5): 642–5. PMID 7820530.
  18. Moorjani N, Kuo J, Ashley S, Hughes G (2005). "Intravenous uterine leiomyosarcomatosis with intracardial extension". J Card Surg. 20 (4): 382–5. doi:10.1111/j.1540-8191.2005.200476.x. PMID 15985146.
  19. Poliquin V, Victory R, Vilos GA (2008). "Epidemiology, presentation, and management of retroperitoneal leiomyomata: systematic literature review and case report". J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 15 (2): 152–60. doi:10.1016/j.jmig.2007.12.009. PMID 18312983.
  20. Vaquero ME, Magrina JF, Leslie KO (2009). "Uterine smooth-muscle tumors with unusual growth patterns". J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 16 (3): 263–8. doi:10.1016/j.jmig.2009.01.013. PMID 19423058.
  21. Andrade LA, Torresan RZ, Sales JF, Vicentini R, De Souza GA (1998). "Intravenous leiomyomatosis of the uterus. A report of three cases". Pathol. Oncol. Res. 4 (1): 44–7. PMID 9555121.
  22. Kang LQ, Zhang B, Liu BG, Liu FH (January 2012). "Diagnosis of intravenous leiomyomatosis extending to heart with emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging". Chin. Med. J. 125 (1): 33–7. PMID 22340462.
  23. Xu, Zhi-Feng (2013). "Uterine intravenous leiomyomatosis with cardiac extension: Imaging characteristics and literature review". World Journal of Clinical Oncology. 4 (1): 25. doi:10.5306/wjco.v4.i1.25. ISSN 2218-4333.
  24. Yanagiya A, Yamada O, Nanbu T, Hamada H, Takada J, Matsuura M; et al. (2015). "[One-stage resection of intravenous leiomyomatosis extending into the right atrium]". Kyobu Geka. 68 (3): 188–91. PMID 25743551.
  25. Castelli P, Caronno R, Piffaretti G, Tozzi M (2006). "Intravenous uterine leiomyomatosis with right heart extension: successful two-stage surgical removal". Ann Vasc Surg. 20 (3): 405–7. doi:10.1007/s10016-006-9024-0. PMID 16583249.
  26. Nam MS, Jeon MJ, Kim YT, Kim JW, Park KH, Hong YS (2003). "Pelvic leiomyomatosis with intracaval and intracardiac extension: a case report and review of the literature". Gynecol Oncol. 89 (1): 175–80. PMID 12694674.

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