Hyporeflexia

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Carlos A Lopez, M.D. [2]

Overview[edit]

Hyporeflexia is the condition of below normal or absent reflexes. It can be tested for by using a reflex hammer. Some examples of hyporeflexia are Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome, Drug side effects of all-trans retinoic acid, cevimeline, clonidine, fluphenazine, Jansen's metaphyseal chondrodysplasia and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

Causes[edit]

Life Threatening Causes[edit]

Life-threatening causes include conditions which may result in death or permanent disability within 24 hours if left untreated.

Common Causes[edit]

Causes by Organ System[edit]

Cardiovascular Stroke
Chemical / poisoning Aftershave, barium sulfate, selenious acid, cone shell poisoning, erythrokeratodermia ataxia, eucalyptus oil poisoning, licorice, herbal agent overdose cleistanthus collinus, opioid intoxication, oriental hornet poisoning, potassium, snakebites, sea snake poisoning , white chameleon poisoning
Dermatologic Vitamin E deficiency
Drug Side Effect All-trans retinoic acid, cevimeline, clonidine, fluphenazine, imidazoline, lamotrigine, vincristine,lorazepam, nelarabine, oxazepam, oxcarbazepine, perphenazine, phenothiazine, prochlorperazine, saquinavir, thioridazine, tiagabine, trifluoperazine, venlafaxine, vigabatrin, zaleplon
Ear Nose Throat ARTS syndrome
Endocrine Hypokalemic thyrotoxic periodic paralysis
Environmental No underlying causes
Gastroenterologic Chylomicron retention disease
Genetic Jansen's metaphyseal chondrodysplasia, Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome, leigh's disease, lower motor neuron lesion, marinesco-Sjogren syndrome, NADH CoQ reductase deficiency, McLeod phenotype, Mental retardation, Miller fisher syndrome, mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes, multifocal motor neuropathy with conduction block, navajo neurohepatopathy, infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy, neuronal intranuclear hyaline inclusion disease, distal hereditary motor type VII, non-ketotic hyperglycemia, Pena-shokeir syndrome type 2, progressive external opthhalmoplegia, autosomal dominant 1, Roussy-levy syndrome, Smith-Magenis syndrome, Southwestern athabaskan genetic diseases, spastic tetraplegic -- cerebral palsy, spinal bulbar motor neuropathy, spinal muscular atrophy, spinocerebellar ataxia
Hematologic Tang Hsi Ryu syndrome
Iatrogenic No underlying causes
Infectious Disease Lyme disease, quaternary syphilis, tabes dorsalis
Musculoskeletal / Ortho Adducted thumb syndrome recessive form, arthrogryposis due to muscular dystrophy, becker muscular dystrophy, benign congenital hypotonia, brown-Sequard syndrome, bulimia nervosa, CAMFAK syndrome, cauda equina syndrome, cerebro-Oculo-Facio-Skeletal syndrome, charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, type 2, cockayne syndrome, complex 1 mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiency, congenital myopathy, conus medullaris syndrome, distal hereditary motor type VII, Down's syndrome, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Dykes-Markes-Harper syndrome, emerinopathy, Erb-goldflam, Fazio Londe syndrome , Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker syndrome, Guillain-Barré syndrome, Holmes-Adie syndrome, hyperkalemic periodic paralysis, hypokalemic periodic paralysis, hypokalemic thyrotoxic periodic paralysis, Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome, lower motor neuron lesion, muscular dystrophy, multifocal muscular fibrosis, nervous system injuries due to penetrating neck injury, Infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy, neuronal intranuclear hyaline inclusion disease, paramyotonia congenita, penetrating neck injuries, peripheral nerve and muscle disease, polymyositis, progressive external opthhalmoplegia, rommen-mueller-sybert syndrome, scapuloperoneal amyotrophy, schwartz-jampel syndrome, Smith-Magenis syndrome, spinal cord compression, spinal muscular atrophy, transverse myelitis, Treft-sanborn-carey syndrome, Zellweger syndrome
Neurologic Acute weakness in the emergency department, anterior cord syndrome, ARTS syndrome, Brown-sequard syndrome, Bulimia nervosa, CAMFAK syndrome,Cauda equina syndrome, central cord syndromes, cerebellar stroke syndrome, Cerebro-Oculo-Facio-Skeletal syndrome, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, type 2, coloboma chorioretinal cerebellar vermis aplasia, conus medullaris syndrome , Down's syndrome, Friedreich ataxia, folate deficiency, Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker syndrome, hypertrophic neuropathy of dejerine-sottas, infantile axonal neuropathy,Krabbe disease,Marinesco-Sjogren syndrome,neuroacanthocytosis, Miller fisher syndrome, muscular dystrophy, navajo neurohepatopathy, nervous system injuries due to penetrating neck injury, paramyotonia congenita, peripheral nerve and muscle disease, spinal muscular atrophy, posterior cord syndrome, pure motor lacunar syndrome, quaternary syphilis, rommen-mueller-sybert syndrome, segmental syndrome, spinal cord compression, spinocerebellar ataxia,

, transverse myelitis, vitamin E deficiency, ventral cord syndrome

Nutritional / Metabolic Congenital disorder of glycosylation, cytochrome c oxidase deficiency, folate deficiency, hypermagnesaemia, hypokalemia, hypokalemic periodic paralysis, Krabbe disease, Leigh syndrome, Mcleod phenotype, NADH CoQ reductase deficiency, mitochondrial acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase deficiency, navajo neurohepatopathy, non-ketotic hyperglycemia, Pena-shokeir syndrome type 2, tabes dorsalis, vitamin E deficiency
Obstetric/Gynecologic No underlying causes
Oncologic No underlying causes
Ophthalmologic Cerebro-Oculo-Facio-Skeletal syndrome, Coloboma chorioretinal cerebellar vermis aplasia, Schwartz-jampel syndrome, Treft-sanborn-carey syndrome, Zellweger syndrome
Overdose / Toxicity No underlying causes
Psychiatric No underlying causes
Pulmonary No underlying causes
Renal / Electrolyte Bartter syndrome, neuroaxonal dystrophy renal tubular acidosis,
Rheum / Immune / Allergy Chediak-Higashi Syndrome, multifocal motor neuropathy with conduction block, severe combined immunodeficiency
Sexual No underlying causes
Trauma No underlying causes
Urologic Conus medullaris syndrome
Miscellaneous Hypothermia, stroke

Causes in Alphabetical Order[edit]

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References[edit]

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