Hypercalcemia risk factors
Hypercalcemia On the Web
American Roentgen Ray Society Images of Hypercalcemia
Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. ; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Anmol Pitliya, M.B.B.S. M.D.
Common risk factors in the development of hypercalcemia include postmenopausal women, age group 50-60 year, family history of hyperparathyroidism, history of familial syndromes, and renal diseases.
Common Risk Factors
Common risk factors in the development of hypercalcemia include:
- Postmenopausal women
- Age group 50-60 years
- Family history of hyperparathyroidism
- History of familial syndromes such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, type 2A or type 4; familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia, hyperparathyroid-jaw tumor syndrome
Common risk factors in the development of hypercalcemia in chronic renal failure include:
- High serum phosphorus expression levels
- Low serum creatinine expression levels
- Low serum calcium expression levels
- Female gender
Common risk factors in the development of hypercalcemia post renal transplantation include:
- Elderly individuals
- Longer duration of dialysis
Less Common Risk Factors
Less common risk factors in the development of hypecalcemia include:
Less common risk factors in the development of secondary hyperparathyroidism in chronic renal failure include:
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 Wei Y, Lin J, Yang F, Li X, Hou Y, Lu R, Shi X, Liu Z, Du Y (2016). "Risk factors associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients with chronic kidney disease". Exp Ther Med. 12 (2): 1206–1212. doi:10.3892/etm.2016.3438. PMC 4950648. PMID 27446345.
- ↑ Hamidian Jahromi A, Roozbeh J, Raiss-Jalali GA, Dabaghmanesh A, Jalaeian H, Bahador A, Nikeghbalian S, Salehipour M, Salahi H, Malek-Hosseini A (2009). "Risk factors of post renal transplant hyperparathyroidism". Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 20 (4): 573–6. PMID 19587496.
- ↑ Szalat, Auryan; Mazeh, Haggi; Freund, Herbert R (2009). "Lithium-associated hyperparathyroidism: report of four cases and review of the literature" (PDF). European Journal of Endocrinology. 160: 317–323.