Jump to navigation Jump to search


style="background:#Template:Taxobox colour;"|Ferret
A domestic ferret
A domestic ferret
Conservation status
style="background:#Template:Taxobox colour;" | Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Mustelidae
Genus: Mustela
Species: M. putorius
Subspecies: M. p. furo
Trinomial name
Mustela putorius furo
(Linnaeus, 1758)

The ferret is a domestic mammal of the type Mustela putorius furo. Domestic ferrets typically have brown, black, white, or mixed fur, have an average length of approximately 20 inches (51 cm) including a 5 inch (13 cm) tail, weigh about 2-4 pounds (1 kg),[1] and have a natural lifespan of 7 to 10 years.[2][3][4]

Several other small, elongated carnivorous mammals belonging to the family Mustelidae (weasels) also have the word "ferret" in their common names, including an endangered species, the Black-footed Ferret. The ferret is a very close relative of the polecat, but it is as yet unclear whether it is a domesticated form of the European Polecat, the Steppe Polecat, or some hybrid of the two.

The history of the ferret's domestication is uncertain, like that of most other domestic animals. It is very likely that ferrets have been domesticated for at least 2,500 years, but it is not certain for what purpose the ferret was originally domesticated. They are still used for hunting rabbits in some parts of the world today, but increasingly they are being kept simply as pets.

Being so closely related to polecats, ferrets are quite easily able to hybridize with them, and this has occasionally resulted in feral colonies of ferret polecat hybrids that have been perceived to have caused damage to native fauna, perhaps most notably in New Zealand. As a result, some parts of the world have imposed restrictions on the keeping of ferrets.


Like most domestic animals, the original reason for ferrets' domestication by human beings is uncertain but it may have involved hunting. It was most likely domesticated from the European polecat (Mustela putorius), though it is also possible that ferrets are descendants of the Steppe polecat (Mustela eversmannii), or some hybridization thereof.[5] Analysis of mitochondrial DNA suggests that ferrets were domesticated around 2,500 years ago, although what appear to be ferret remains have been dated to 1500 BC.[6] It has been claimed that the ancient Egyptians were the first to domesticate ferrets, but as no mummified remains of a ferret have yet been found, or any hieroglyph of a ferret, and no polecat now occurs wild in the area, that idea seems unlikely.[7]

The Greek word ictis occurs in a play written by Aristophanes, The Acharnians, in 425 BC. Whether this was actually a reference to ferrets, polecats, or the similar Egyptian Mongoose is uncertain.[8]

The name "ferret" is derived from the Latin furittus, meaning "little thief", a likely reference to the common ferret penchant for secreting away small items.[9] Ferrets were probably used by the Romans for hunting.[10][11]

Colonies of feral ferrets have established themselves in areas where there is no competition from similarly sized predators, such as in the Shetland Islands. Where ferrets coexist with polecats, hybridization is common. It has been claimed that New Zealand has the world's largest feral population of ferret-polecat hybrids.[12] In 1877, farmers in New Zealand demanded that ferrets be introduced into the country to control the rabbit population, which was also introduced by humans. Five ferrets were imported in 1879, and in 1882-1883, 32 shipments of ferrets were made from London, totaling 1,217 animals. Only 678 landed, and 198 were sent from Melbourne, Australia. On the voyage, the ferrets were mated with the European polecat, creating a number of hybrids that were capable of surviving in the wild. In 1884 and 1886, close to 4,000 ferrets and ferret hybrids, 3,099 weasels and 137 stoats were turned loose.[13] Concern was raised that these animals would eventually prey on indigenous wildlife once rabbit populations dropped, and this is exactly what happened to New Zealand bird species which previously had no mammalian predators.


For hundreds of years, the main use of ferrets was for hunting, or ferreting. With their long, lean build and inquisitive nature, ferrets are very well equipped for getting down holes and chasing rodents and rabbits out of their burrows. Caesar Augustus sent ferrets or mongooses (named "viverrae" by Plinius) to the Balearic Islands to control the rabbit plagues in 6 BC.[14] They are still used for hunting in some countries, including the United Kingdom, where rabbits are considered a plague species. However, the practice is illegal in several countries where it is feared that ferrets could unbalance the ecology.

In England, in 1390, a law was enacted restricting the use of ferrets for hunting to those of substantial means:

...it is ordained that no manner of layman which hath not lands to the value of forty shillings a year (the equivalent of about £1,000 in today's money[15]) shall from henceforth keep any greyhound or other dog to hunt, nor shall he use ferrets, nets, heys, harepipes nor cords, nor other engines for to take or destroy deer, hares, nor conies, nor other gentlemen's game, under pain of twelve months' imprisonment.[16]

Ferrets were first introduced into the New World in the 17th century, and were used extensively from 1860 until the start of World War II to protect grain stores in the American West.

Ferrets as pets

In the United States, ferrets were relatively rare pets until the 1980s. Dr. Wendy Winstead, a veterinarian and former folk singer who had her first ferret in 1969, sold ferrets to a number of celebrities including Dick Smothers and David Carradine while making television appearances on programs such as the David Letterman Show with ferrets in the 1980s,[17] writing books and promoting them until her death in the 1990s from cancer. A government study by the California State Bird and Mammal Conservation Program found that by 1996, approximately 800,000 or so domestic ferrets were likely being kept as pets in the United States.[18]

Activity and nature

File:Fretts 301004 selbstfotografiert, GNU-FDL.jpg
Ferrets sleeping in a pile

Ferrets spend 14 to 18 hours a day sleeping and are naturally crepuscular, meaning they are most active during dusk and dawn. Though ferrets sleep more than most domesticated animals, they are very active when awake and will seek to be released from their cage to get exercise and satisfy their abundant curiosity daily.

Ferret dragging off toy to hide

Ferrets are energetic, curious, interested in their surroundings, and often actively solicit play with humans, having a repertoire of behaviors both endearing and difficult for some human owners. Play for a ferret will often involve hide-and-seek games, or some form of predator/prey game in which either the human attempts to catch the ferret or the ferret to catch the human. They also have a strong nesting instinct and will repeatedly carry small objects to hidden locations. It is difficult to predict what objects ferrets will attempt to hoard, with owners reporting play toys, socks, bags of onions, pizza slices, keys, calculators, silverware, aluminum foil, shoes, sponges, toilet paper rolls, textbooks, video game controllers, footballs, etc. Ferrets will seemingly form attachments to certain objects and will repeatedly 'steal' the same object and bring it to their hiding place.

Ferrets are easily entertained and do not require pet toys; however, most kitten toys work well with ferrets. Ferrets love playing tug of war with toys and stuffed animals. Ferrets will also tear open packages and other containers to see what is inside or explore the inside of the package. Ferrets are interested in holes, pipes and other small enclosed areas, and seem compelled to explore holes. Thus a cardboard or plastic tube will be appreciated. Ferrets are especially fond of variety in their toy selection - bell-balls, crinkle tubes, and paper bags will work well. All toys should be mixed up regularly, as ferrets will often grow bored of playing the same games repeatedly.

Ferret playing tug with his hair pick

When ferrets are excited, they may perform a routine commonly referred to as the weasel war dance, a frenzied series of sideways hops. This is often accompanied by a soft clucking noise, commonly referred to as dooking. It is often an invitation to play or an expression of happy excitement and is not threatening.

File:Vinnie the Ferret in a War Dance Jump.jpg
A ferret in a War Dance jump.

The ferret's posture may become rigid with wide open jaws, momentary eye contact followed by thrashing or turning of the head from side to side, arching the back, piloerection, and hopping to the side or backwards while facing the intended playmate. This is often accompanied by an excited panting sound that may sound like a hiss. Often, this behavior will break into a game of chase, pounce and wrestle. Ferrets in war dances are very accident prone, often hopping into obstacles or tripping over their own feet.[19][20][21]

Ferrets tend to nip as kits. Nipping is the act of biting in a playful manner representative of mock fighting and sparring; young ferrets are also more prone to chewing and teething, and have a tendency to bite harder. Older ferrets tend to chew far less frequently and, when trained correctly, almost never nip a human hand or only do so very gently. However, ferrets that have been abused or are in extreme pain may bite a human, and are capable of strong bites which break through the skin.

Ferrets, like cats, can use a litter box with training, but they are not always completely litter box trainable. Their instinct is to spread their waste in order to scent mark a wider foraging territory for themselves; thus, multiple litter boxes may be necessary, and all litter areas should be changed frequently.

A common ferret problem to many pet owners is introducing new ferrets to their population. Senior ferrets may seem excessively violent to unknown ferrets in their home, but adding another ferret to ones population to decrease boredom or for breeding will greatly encourage the morale of the ferret or ferret population one owns. Males and females will exhibit much stronger territorial urges when confronted with a new ferret, and will often treat the new ferret like a toy. After a fighting period which should be monitored but only rarely results in harm to a ferret, the older ferret will show its dominance, often by dragging the junior ferret around by the scruff of the neck to its hoard and leaving it like any other object it values. Given time and careful monitoring, new ferrets will almost always be accepted by the older ferret or group. Young ferrets can actually benefit from having an older house trained ferret around when being taught to use a litter box, take baths, or have their nails clipped.


Ferrets are obligate carnivores and the natural diet of their wild ancestors consisted of whole small prey, i.e., meat, organs, bones, skin, feathers, and fur. Some ferret owners feed a meat-based diet consisting of whole prey like mice and rabbits along with raw meat like chicken, beef, veal, kangaroo and wallaby. This is preferred in Europe and Australia, and becoming increasingly popular in the United States due to concern over high carbohydrate levels in some processed ferret foods.[22]

Alternatively, there are many commercial ferret food products. Some kitten foods can also be used, so long as they provide the high protein and fat content required by the ferret's metabolism. Most adult cat foods and kitten foods are unsuitable for ferrets however, because of their low protein content and high fiber. Ideally, a ferret food should contain a minimum of 32% meat based protein and 18% fat.[23] Low-quality pet foods often contain grain-based proteins, which ferrets cannot properly digest.

Ferrets may have a fondness for sweets like raisins, bananas, peanut butter, and pieces of cereal. The high sugar content of such treats has been linked to ferret insulinoma and other diseases. Veterinarians recommend not feeding raisins and the like to ferrets at all. Also, like many other carnivores, ferrets gradually lose the ability to digest lactose after they are weaned. As a result, lactose-free milk is to be preferred.

Many ferrets are sold very young. Sometimes a ferret will be sold too young; after consultation with a veterinarian, it should be fed a mix of crushed or soft food mixed with milk slightly warmed, until the veterinarian advises otherwise.

Dangers to ferrets

Ferret curiosity often exceeds common sense and ferrets are good at getting into holes in walls, doors, cupboards, or in or behind household appliances such as clothes dryers and dishwashers, where they can be injured or killed by drowning, electrical wiring, fans, and other household items. Many enjoy chewing items made of soft rubber, foam, or sponge, which present the risk of intestinal blockage and death if ingested. Serious and sometimes fatal injuries have resulted from ferrets chewing on electrical cords. Screen doors can be damaged by a ferret's claws, and dryer vents often become escape routes to the outdoors.

Ferret crawling under recliner

Unlike dogs and cats, many ferrets display little homing instinct and do not thrive as strays. Ferret owners frequently train ferrets at a young age to respond to clicker toys, or to the sound of their own food being shaken, as a means of recovering a ferret which has ventured too far from its home. In all cases, the escape of a ferret should be addressed immediately, as wandering ferrets may be easily injured or killed by neighborhood animals, local wildlife, or passing vehicles.

Recliners and fold-out sofas are a leading cause of accidental death in ferrets.[24] Ferrets will often climb inside the springs and can be injured or killed once the chair is put into a reclined position.

For these reasons, owners usually "ferret-proof" their home, the task of carefully going through each room, removing items dangerous to ferrets and covering over any holes or potential escape routes. As ferrets can open improperly latched cupboards or doors by rolling over and clawing at the bottom edge, childproof latches are often used and owners keep cleaning products in high, out-of-reach places. However, ferrets can typically fit through any hole as small as the size of their head, making some childproof latches ineffective.

Some owners may prefer to house their pets outdoors in sheds, and not indoors. This is becoming more popular, due to speculation on the possible effects of the photoperiod effect on the ferret adrenal gland.[25]

Ferret "gardening" a plant

When a ferret is outdoors, an owner must take additional care during mosquito and tick season, as ferrets are susceptible to the diseases carried by these parasites. Ticks can attach themselves and begin to draw blood. When the tick gets full, it regurgitates some blood and tick saliva back into the ferret, which is how Lyme and other diseases can be transmitted. Ordinarily, the regurgitation happens between five to 24 hours after the tick attaches. Early removal of ticks using proper methods to avoid tick regurgitation, and prevention when in environments where encountering ticks is essential. Additionally, mosquitoes may carry heart worms and the West Nile virus. Fleas can cause extreme skin irritation and can be intermediate hosts for tapeworms, one of which may kill a ferret because of their small size. Similarly, the venom of a bee, wasp or spider is much more serious for a ferret than for a larger mammal, and ferrets can be regarded as prey by hawks, and by large snakes.

Ferrets are fearless to the point of foolishness and should not be allowed to wander. Whenever they are outside, they should be closely supervised and preferably kept on a harness leash designed for ferrets such as an H-shaped harness. Their curious nature also leads them to place themselves in situations where they will confront and try to play with larger animals outdoors that may be dangerous to the ferret.

Ferret at play

Ferrets have been known to play well with household cats and some non-aggressive dogs, however, great care must be taken when introducing ferrets to any other household pets. Certain terrier dog breeds even have a heightened instinct to grab and kill ferrets. Many breeders these days prefer to raise their young kits with prey animal (baby & adult mouse, chicken, hamster, rats etc) instead of giving dry food. Therefore, ferrets may attack and kill pets like rodents, birds, and small reptiles, which may have been the prey of their wild ancestors.

Ferrets and children

Ferrets can make good pets for some children, but usually do not make good pets for very young children. Important considerations include assessing potential danger to a human child by a pet ferret, and potential danger to a pet ferret by a human child, either deliberately or by neglect.

Ferrets are capable of delivering a bite almost as strong as a domestic cat. Like all other domesticated animals, they should never be left unsupervised near infants or very young children. There have been rare cases where ferrets have severely injured babies but nearly all such incidents involved neglect, abuse, or roughhousing that the ferret likely perceived as an attack, and some of the animals involved were ferret-polecat hybrid crosses.[26] Given that young children and ferrets can be both excitable and prone to rough play, interaction between ferrets and children must always be closely supervised for the protection of both.

File:Ferrets children.jpg
Boy with ferrets

With regard to the danger of potential pet ferret attacks as contrasted to attacks from other pet species, statistics would imply that the danger is probably overstated. In the United States, a government study by the California Department of Health Services on national pet attack statistics found 452 reported incidents of ferret bites during the ten year period 1978-1987.[27][28] By comparison, pet dogs accounted for an estimated 585,000 injuries that required medical attention in the year 1986 alone,[29] with the total number of pet dogs in the United States in 1996 estimated at 55,000,000[30] and the total number of pet ferrets in the United States in 1996 estimated at 800,000.[31] Adjusting for the proportionate ratio of dogs to ferrets in the United States of 68 to 1, dog bites occurred 190 times more often than ferret bites.

As the possible danger to a human child by a pet ferret must be assessed, the possible danger to a pet ferret by a human child should also be considered in determining whether or not a ferret will make a good pet for a child. Younger children may play too rough with a ferret, or fail to anticipate the physical danger to a ferret from things like closing doors, heavy objects, or accidentally stepping on the animal during play, all of which may lead to severe injury, and often the need for surgery, for the ferret involved. Repeated rough play may psychologically and physically stress the ferret and increases the likelihood of a provocation and a defensive response or bite from the animal. Additionally, as with any pet, young children may fail to appreciate the responsibilities of care and maintenance of their ferret, including attention to proper food and water supply, cage and litter maintenance, grooming, and the need for daily activity and attention when the ferret is alert and active. If a parent or responsible party is not present and willing to step in and fulfill these needs, a ferret is likely a poor choice of pet for a child, due to the problem of neglect.

For children who demonstrate responsible behavior, in regard to both playing with their pet and to consistent care and maintenance, ferrets can make good pets and are often loved by children for their social personalities and engaging antics.

Other uses of ferrets

Ferrets have been used to run wires and cables through large conduits. Event organizers in London used ferrets to run TV and sound cables for both the wedding of Charles, Prince of Wales to Lady Diana Spencer, and for the "Party in the Park" concert held in Greenwich Park on Millennium Eve.[32] One ferret, Freddie, was even registered as an electrician's assistant with the New Zealand Electrical Workers Union.[33]

Because they share many anatomical and physiological features with humans, ferrets are extensively used as experimental subjects in biomedical research, in fields such as virology, reproductive physiology, anatomy, endocrinology and neuroscience.

Ferrets' role in prescription medication disposal

SAMHSA spokesman Mark Weber listed ferret waste as an alternative to using coffee grinds for the safe disposal of prescription medicine. This method has dual purpose: to keep prescription medications from being abused, and to minimize the effect on fish and amphibians from medications flushed down the toilet.[34]

Ferret biology and health concerns

Ferret after a shower

Ferrets do not require frequent bathing, which may remove natural oils in the ferrets coat that prevent dry skin. However, most ferrets are not averse to water. Ferrets also need their nails clipped on a regular basis, and usually shed twice a year in the spring and fall. A laxative is sometimes administered, to help any ingested fur pass more easily through the digestive tract.

Ferret bedding should be washed or changed regularly, and the litter box cleaned frequently, which significantly lessens any unpleasant odors. Due to their low carriage and their sensitive mucous membranes, ferrets are extremely sensitive to dust in their environment and many cat litters may be unsuitable for them. Also, a clumping cat litter may be ingested and cause blockages. A litter made from recycled paper material or organic material (e.g. corn or wheat) is preferred.

Most veterinarians recommend an annual health checkup. Ferrets often hide symptoms of illness very well, so any unusual behavior is considered good cause for a medical consultation. As ferrets have high metabolisms and cancers can progress at a fast rate, early detection is critical for successful treatment.

Like many other carnivores, ferrets have scent glands near their anuses, the secretions from which are used in scent marking. It has been reported that ferrets can recognize individuals from these anal gland secretions, as well as the sex of unfamiliar individuals.[35] Ferrets may also use urine marking for sex and individual recognitions.[36]

File:Frettchen in blanket.jpg
A ferret wrapped in a blanket.

Like skunks, ferrets can release their anal gland secretions when startled or scared, but the smell dissipates rapidly. Most pet ferrets in the US are sold de-scented, with their anal glands removed. In the UK, many consider de-scenting an unnecessary mutilation. In Australia and the UK, the general opinion is that the animal does not need to be de-scented. The Netherlands and other parts of Europe consider this practice to be animal abuse.

Males, if not neutered, are extremely musky. It is considered preferable to delay neutering until sexual maturity has been reached, at approximately 6-8 months old, after the full descent of the testicles. Neutering the male will reduce the smell to almost nothing. The same applies for females, but spaying them is also important for their own health. Unless they are going to be used for breeding purposes, female ferrets will go into extended heat and an unbred female without medical intervention can die of aplastic anemia.

Many domestic ferrets are known to suffer from several distinct health problems. Among the most common are cancers affecting the adrenal glands, pancreas, and lymphatic system. Some health problems have been linked to ferrets being neutered before sexual maturity was reached, because of this some owners now choose to use implants instead of having the ferret neutered too early. Some owners even choose not to have their ferret neutered at all but use longer working implants instead. Certain colors of ferret may also carry a genetic defect known as Waardenburg syndrome .

Many of the diseases present in ferrets can cause severe weight loss, which, due to their size, can be an even more extreme problem than in some other animals. Ferrets suffering from extreme weight loss or with sensitive digestive tracts are often recommended to be fed a mixture called "duck soup." This usually contains a high-fat, high-protein, low-fiber mixture of a whole chicken (innards and all), fat drippings, Nutrical, Ferretone, high-grade kitten food, and several other ingredients, variant on recipe. "Duck soup" helps ensure that a ferret keeps his or her weight up and is easy on the intestines.

Dehydrated ferrets may also be given Pedialyte.

Adrenal disease

Adrenal disease, a growth of the adrenal glands that can be either hyperplasia or cancer, is most often diagnosed by signs like unusual hair loss, increased aggression, difficulty urinating or defecating, or agitation when urinating, and (in the case of females) an enlarged vulva. Even if the growth is benign, it can still cause a hormonal imbalance which can have devastating effects on the ferret's health.

Treatment options include surgery to excise the affected glands, melatonin implants, which treat the symptoms but not the disease itself, and/or hormone therapy. The causes of adrenal disease are as yet uncertain, but speculated triggers include unnatural light cycles, diets based around processed ferret foods, and prepuberty neutering. It has also been suggested that there may be a hereditary component to adrenal disease.[37]

Adrenal disease is usually detected during the spring or fall. This is because adrenal disease affects the hormones that make the fur grow, so when ferrets with adrenal disease shed their winter coat they simply don't grow it back because of the disease. The hair loss pattern is usually very specific for adrenal disease: It begins at the base of the tail and then continues up the ferret's back. Ferrets who have been treated for adrenal disease may also suffer temporary but severe hair loss as their bodies recover.


Ferrets are also known to suffer from insulinoma, a cancer of the pancreas. The growth of cancerous nodules on the lobes of the pancreas sometimes, but not always, leads to an increase in the production of insulin, which regulates the rate at which the ferret's body metabolizes blood glucose. Too much insulin will cause blood sugar to drop, resulting in lethargy, seizures, and ultimately death. Symptoms of an insulinoma attack include episodes of lethargy, drooling, pawing and/or foaming at the mouth, high pitched screams, staring "blankly" into space, and seizures.

Like adrenal cancer, the exact cause of insulinoma is unknown. It is speculated that the diets of domestic ferrets are too far removed from the natural diets of their polecat ancestors, and include too much sugar or simple carbohydrates.

Treatment for insulinoma may include surgical excision of the cancerous lobes, pharmaceutical treatment with steroids that suppress the production of insulin, supplemental changes in diet (most often poultry-based baby food), or a combination thereof. Unfortunately, the growth of the tumors cannot be completely stopped, and the ferret will eventually suffer a recurrence of symptoms. In an insulinoma attack, a temporary remedy to stabilize the ferret is any kind of a sugary syrup, such as corn syrup or honey.


Lymphoma/lymphosarcoma is the most common malignancy in ferrets. Ferret lymphosarcoma occurs in two forms -- juvenile lymphosarcoma, a fast-growing type that affects ferrets younger than two years, and adult lymphosarcoma, a slower growing form that affects ferrets four to seven years old.

In juvenile ferret lymphosarcoma, large, immature lymphocytes (lymphoblasts) rapidly invade the thymus and/or the organs of the abdominal cavity, particularly the liver and spleen. In adult ferret lymphosarcoma, the lymph nodes in the limbs and abdominal cavity become swollen early on due to invasion by small, mature lymphocytes. Invasion of organs, such as the liver, kidney, lungs, and spleen, occurs later on, and the disease may be far advanced before symptoms are noticeable.

As in humans, ferret lymphosarcoma can be treated surgically, with radiation therapy, chemotherapy or a combination thereof. The long-term prognosis is rarely bright, however, and this treatment is intended to improve quality of life with the disease.

Viral diseases

Epizootic catarrhal enteritis (ECE)

ECE, a viral disease that first appeared in the northeastern US in 1994, is an inflammation of the mucous membranes in the intestine. The disease manifests itself as severe diarrhea (often of a bright green color), loss of appetite, and severe weight loss. The virus can be passed via fluids and indirectly between humans. Although it was often fatal when first discovered, ECE is less of a threat nowadays with the right supportive care which usually includes hospitalization with intravenous fluids. The virus is especially threatening to older ferrets and requires immediate attention.

Aleutian disease virus (ADV)

Aleutian Disease Virus (ADV) is a parvovirus discovered among mink in the Aleutian Islands in the early 20th century. In ferrets, the virus affects the immune system (causing it to produce non-neutralizing antibodies) and many internal organs, particularly the kidneys. There is no cure or vaccine for the disease, and ferrets may carry the virus for months or years without any external symptoms. As a result, some ferret organizations and shelters recommend that owners test their pets for the virus regularly, separating them from other ferrets if they test positive.

Canine distemper

Canine distemper (CD) is an extremely contagious virus that is almost always fatal. Being strict indoor pets does not necessarily protect ferrets, as owners may bring the virus home on their clothes or their shoes. The only protection against the virus is vaccination, but that is not without controversy as there have been reports, particularly from the USA, of ferrets going into anaphylactic shock after being vaccinated against CD.

Influenza virus isolation using ferrets

Ferrets have served as a good experimental animal models in the study of influenza virus. Smith, Andrews, Laidlaw(1933)inoculated ferrets intra-nasally with human naso-pharyngeal washes, which produced a form of influenza that spread to other cage mates. The human influenza virus(Influenza type A) was transmitted from an infected ferret to a junior investigator , from whom it was subsequently re-isolated.

Waardenburg-like coloring

Ferrets with a white stripe on their face or a fully white head, primarily blazes, badgers, and pandas, almost certainly carry a congenital defect which shares some similarities to Waardenburg syndrome. This causes, among other things, a cranial deformation in the womb which broadens the skull, causing the white face markings but also partial or total deafness. It is estimated as many as 75% of ferrets with these Waardenburg-like colorings are deaf. Beyond that, the cranial deformation also causes a higher instance of stillborn ferret kits, and occasionally cleft palates. Because of this, many breeders will not breed Waardenburg-patterned ferrets.

Terminology and coloring

A sable ferret, the most common color variation[38]
File:Female ferret Emily cinnamon color.jpg
A cinnamon "sprite" ferret

Male intact ferrets are called hobs; female intact ferrets are jills. A spayed female is a sprite, and a neutered male is a gib. Ferrets under one year old are known as kits. A group of ferrets is known as a business.

Ferrets come in a variety of coat colors and patterns. The ones recognized by the American Ferret Association are as follows:[39]


  • Albino
  • Black
  • Black Sable
  • Champagne
  • Chocolate
  • Cinnamon
  • Dark-eyed White
  • Sable
  • Silver
  • Blue

Color concentrations:

  • Standards
  • Roans
  • Point (Siamese)
  • Solids


  • Blaze
  • Panda
  • Mitt

White ferrets were favored in the Middle Ages for the ease in seeing them in thick undergrowth. Leonardo's painting Lady with an Ermine is likely mislabeled; the animal is probably a ferret, not a stoat, for which "ermine" is an alternative name (the latter strictly applying only to the animal in its white winter coat). Similarly, the Ermine portrait of Queen Elizabeth the First shows her with her pet ferret, who has been decorated with painted-on heraldic ermine spots.

"The Ferreter's Tapestry" is a fifteenth-century tapestry from Burgundy, France now part of the Burrell Collection housed in the Glasgow Museum and Art Galleries. It shows a group of peasants hunting rabbits with nets and white ferrets.

"Pope Celestinus III Grants Privilege of Independence to the Spedale" painted by Domenico di Bartolo in 1443 shows a fashionable man with a colored pet ferret wearing a red collar on his shoulder. This image was reproduced in Renaissance Dress In Italy 1400-1500, by Jacqueline Herald, Bell & Hyman - ISBN 0-391-02362-4

Gaston Phoebus' Book Of The Hunt was written in approximately 1389 to explain how to hunt different kinds of animals, including how to use ferrets to hunt rabbits. Illustrations show how multicolored ferrets that are fitted with muzzles were used to chase rabbits out of their dens and into waiting nets.

Ferrets featured in literature and culture

  • In the 1984 made-for-TV movie Caravan of Courage: An Ewok Adventure, the main character Cindel plays with Wicket's pet ferret in a scene shortly after their "star cruiser" crashed.
  • The Greek playwright Aristophanes made reference to ferrets in his satire The Acharneans written around the year 425 BC. "What a happy man he’ll be that marries you and begets a set of Ferrets as good as you at farting in the Grey dawn!".
  • The main character in the Japanese manga series Peach Fuzz is a ferret named Peach who has delusions of being a princess.
  • The title character of the short story Sredni Vashtar by Edwardian satirist Saki is a "polecat-ferret" clandestinely kept by a young boy, who is liberated when the animal he worships as a god kills his overbearing guardian.
  • The children's book Zucchini by Barbara Dana is about a boy and his pet ferret. However, the author gets a number of basic ferret facts wrong, claiming that they are vegetarian rodents.
  • Former Doctor Who lead actor Sylvester McCoy got his acting start as Sylvester McCoy, the Human Bomb, a stage act that consisted of stuffing live ferrets down his trousers.[citation needed]
  • In the film The Big Lebowski, Lebowski is attacked in the bathroom by a "Marmot" which is really a ferret.
  • In the film Kindergarten Cop, John Kimble (played by Arnold Schwarzenegger) owns a pet ferret, which becomes the mascot of his kindergarten class and saves his life by biting the main antagonist near the end of the film.
  • In the film Starship Troopers, Colonel Carl Jenkins (played by Neil Patrick Harris) owns a pet ferret, which he mischievously tells (via Telepathy) to go and find a treat up his mother's leg.
  • Richard Bach, author of Jonathan Livingston Seagull, has written five books starring ferrets, the Ferret Chronicles series.
  • In the 2004 romantic comedy Along Came Polly, Jennifer Aniston's character, Polly, owns a blind ferret who often runs head-first into stationary objects, to great comic effect. The ferret is featured in the promotional material for the film.
  • The film and TV series The Beastmaster has two ferrets, Kodo & Podo, which appear as major characters. The series' protagonist usually kept them in a small pouch attached to his belt.
  • In the fourth Harry Potter book and film, Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, the character Draco Malfoy is turned into an albino ferret.
  • The BBC children's television magazine program Xchange featured the puppet Vinnie, a mischievous ferret.
  • HTV Wales has a long-running investigation series called The Ferret.
  • Ferrets are the obvious suspects in the mystery novel "Nothing to Fear but Ferrets" by Linda O. Johnston.
  • Budweiser (Anheuser-Busch) has used a fictitious ferret in a series of radio commercials.
  • Bill Owen's character Compo in the BBC series Last of The Summer Wine (1973) had two ferrets which caused an uproar at a funeral in one episode.
  • Japanese Media: Ferrets have appeared in the manga Ask the Stars for Help ( 困った時には星に聞け! ) by Miyuki Abe ( あべ 美幸 ) and in the anime series Nanoha ( なのは ) - "In a failed attempt to seal a seed properly, he winds up on Earth in the form of a ferret." The character Yūno Scrya has an animal form as a ferret.
  • The popular webcomic, Sluggy Freelance has a main character named Kiki who is a ferret.
  • A ferret called Fungo Squiggly is one of the supporting characters in the Get Fuzzy comic strip by Darby Conley.
  • In Degrassi: The Next Generation Ellie Nash owns a ferret name Bueller for a short time until he dies due to chewing on electrical wires.
  • In the Pokémon series, the pokemon called Furret is based on a ferret.
  • There are numerous ferrets in the Redwall series by Brian Jacques.
  • Paris Hilton once owned a ferret. She walked the red carpet with it many times, and was publicly scrutinized for taking the ferret, as well as several other animals, to social events.
  • On Tucker Carlson Live, Rudy Giuliani tells a man who called in asking why he banned ferrets in New York City that "The excessive concern that you have for ferrets is a sickness that you should examine with a therapist."
  • In the cartoon series The Littles, Dr. Hunter had a ferret which he often used to try to capture the Littles.
  • In a commercial for Diet Mountain Dew, a ferret walks through the woods with a hockey mask and a chainsaw, chasing two teens.
  • The character Bandit is a ferret on the webcomic The Whiteboard.
  • The 1st Battalion, the Yorkshire Regiment of the British Armed Forces, keeps two ferrets, Imphal and Quebec, as its unofficial mascots, named after the battalion's battle honors.[40]
  • In the manga and anime Strawberry Marshmallow (苺ましまろ, Ichigo Mashimaro) by Barasui, the character Matsuri Sakuragi owns a pet ferret named John.
  • In the manga Ai Yori Aoshi by Kou Fumizuki, Miyabi Kagurazaki acts as the main caretaker of an explorative albino ferret named Uzume.
  • In the anime and manga Infinite Ryvius, the character Fina owns a ferret named Rafra.
  • In the Babymouse series, Babymouse's Best friend is a ferret named Wilson
  • The children's book Poggin Tails by Nick Cooper is a collection of short stories featuring Poggin, a polecat.
  • In the animated children's series Iggy Arbuckle, the characters Robear and Robert are ferrets.
  • In the TV show Ned's Declassified School Survival Guide, Gordy is always over-elaborately hunting a "weasel" which is really a stuffed ferret.
  • In the 2007 film The Golden Compass, the daemon Pantalaimon spends much of the film as a ferret-like animal.
  • In the 2007 film Stardust, the witch Empusa is attacked and devoured by ferrets and wolves.
  • French poet Jean Follain wrote the 75-word poem "Death of the Ferret".[41]
  • In the, as yet unreleased, movie, Inkheart, based on the book by Cornelia Funke, one of the main characters, the fire-eater, Dustfinger, owns a pet marten, Gwin, which is replaced in the film by a 'polecat' or sable ferret.

Regulation on ferrets as pets

  • Australia It is illegal to keep ferrets as pets in Queensland or the Northern Territory; in the ACT a license is required.
  • Brazil Ferrets are becoming popular. They are only allowed if they are given a microchip identification tag and sterilized.
  • Iceland Selling, distributing, breeding and keeping ferrets is illegal in Iceland.
  • New Zealand It has been illegal to sell, distribute or breed ferrets in New Zealand since 2002.
  • Portugal It is illegal to keep ferrets as pets in Portugal. Ferrets can only be used for hunting purposes and can only be kept with a government permit.
  • United States Ferrets were once banned in many US states, but most of these laws were rescinded in the 1980s and 90s as they became popular pets. Ferrets are still illegal in California under Fish and Game Code Section 2118[42] and the California Code of Regulations.[43] Additionally, "Ferrets are strictly prohibited as pets under Hawaii law because they are potential carriers of the rabies virus";[44] the territory of Puerto Rico has a similar law.[45] Ferrets are also restricted by individual cities, such as, Washington, DC and New York City.[45] They are also prohibited on many military bases.[45] A permit to own a ferret is needed in other areas, including Rhode Island.[46] Illinois and Georgia do not require a permit to merely possess a ferret, but a permit is required to breed ferrets.[47] [48] It was once illegal to own ferrets in Dallas, Texas,[49] but the current Dallas City Code for Animals includes regulations for the vaccination of ferrets.[50]

Travel regulations

Airline policies

Most airlines require advance booking for ferret travel, and may levy additional fees. Requirements concerning pet carrier size, weight, and construction may vary from airline to airline. In the U.S., Delta Airlines is the only airline to allow ferrets in the cabin during a flight.

Airline Cargo Cabin Notes Details
Air Canada Yes No No travel between December 19 and January 9 or between June 20 and September 10. Travelling with your Pet[51]
Delta Air Lines Yes Yes Pets as Carry On[52]
Luxair Yes Yes Restrictions apply on flights to the UK. Travelling with animals[53]
Northwest Airlines Yes No Travel with pet[54]
Ryanair No No What is Ryanair's policy on the carriage of animals?[55]
US Airways No No US Airways does not allow pets as cargo because of the heat in some of their hub cities, such as Las Vegas. US Airways - Pets in the Passenger Cabin[56]
Southwest Airlines No No Animals and Pets[57]

Train policies

Company Cargo Cabin Notes Details
Deutsche Bahn N/A Yes
Eurostar No No Information on taking Pets and Guide dogs on Eurostar[58]

Import laws

United States

Ferrets are legal in most US states except, California, and Hawaii [59].


Ferrets cannot be imported into Australia at all. A report drafted in August 2000 seems to be the only effort made to date to change the situation.[60]


Ferrets brought from anywhere except the US require a Permit to Import from the Canadian Food Inspection Agency Animal Health Office. Ferrets from the US require only a vaccination certificate signed by a veterinarian. Ferrets under three months old are not subject to any restrictions for importation.[61]

European Union

As of July 2004, dogs, cats, and ferrets can travel freely within the European Union under the PETS travel scheme. To cross a border within the EU, ferrets require at minimum an EU PETS passport and an identification microchip (though some countries will accept a tattoo instead). Vaccinations are also required; most countries require a rabies vaccine, and some also require a distemper vaccine and treatment for ticks and fleas 24 to 48 hours before entry. PETS travel information is available from any EU veterinarian or on government websites.


Although previously pet ferrets were allowed to be brought into Japan, that is no longer the case. Individual pet ferrets cannot be brought into Japan without proper documents. However, licensed breeders such as Canadian Farms, PVF, Marshall's, etc... have a special agreement that still allows the import of those ferrets from those companies.

United Kingdom

The UK accepts ferrets under the PETS travel scheme. Ferrets must be microchipped, vaccinated against rabies, and documented. They must be treated for ticks and tapeworms 24 to 48 hours before entry. They must also arrive via an authorized route. Ferrets arriving from outside the EU may be subject to a six-month quarantine.[62]



  1. Encyclopedia Brittanica (Concise Edition) entry on "ferret"
  2. Bradley Hills Animal Hospital, Bethesda, Maryland, USA, on lifespan of Ferrets
  3. Ferret Universe.com entry on ferrets
  4. Ferret Information Rescue Shelter & Trust Society, Vancouver, B.C. Canada, on ferrets
  5. Lewington (2007), p. 6.
  6. Glover, James. "The Ancestry of the Domestic Ferret". PetPeoplesPlace.com. Retrieved 2006-09-12.
  7. Church, Bob. "Ferret FAQ - Natural History". ferretcentral.org. Retrieved 2007-08-25.
  8. Thomson (1951)
  9. Merriam-Webster's entry on "ferret"
  10. Matulich, Erika, Ph.D. (2000). "Ferret Domesticity: A Primer". Ferrets USA. Retrieved 2008-03-05.
  11. Brown, Susan, DVM. "History of the Ferret". Retrieved 2008-03-05.
  12. "Feral Ferrets in New Zealand". California's Plants and Animals. California Department of Fish and Game. Retrieved 2006-09-12.
  13. "RABBIT CONTROL". A Hundred Years of Rabbit Impacts, and Future Control Options. New Zealand Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF) Rabbit Biocontrol Advisory Group. Retrieved 2006-09-12.
  14. Plinius the Elder, Natural History, 8 lxxxi 218
  15. "Currency converter" (HTTP). The National Archives. Retrieved 2007-06-26.
  16. Mackay, Thomas, ed. (1891). Plea for Liberty (HTTP). D. Appleton and Co. Retrieved 2007-06-26.
  17. Winstead, Wendy. Ferrets in Your Home. 1990. TFH Publications, Neptune City, New Jersey (176 pp). ISBN 0-86622-988-4
  18. Jurek, R.M. 1998. A review of national and California population estimates of pet ferrets. Calif. Dep. Fish and Game, Wildl. Manage. Div., Bird and Mammal Conservation Program Rep. 98-09. Sacramento, CA. 11 pp.
  19. YouTube - Broadcast Yourself
  20. YouTube - Spazzy Spike - whole video
  21. YouTube - Stitch and Odie playing
  22. Rethinking The Ferret Diet - Info about species-appropriate diets, and the negative effects of commercially prepared diets, written by a veterinarian.
  23. Matulich, Erika. "Frequently Asked Questions about Feeding Ferrets" (HTTP). Cypress Keep Services. Retrieved 2007-09-08.
  24. "Ferret Proofing/Safety" (HTTP). texasferret.org. Retrieved 2007-02-16.
  25. Pet Tribune Online. Possible Effects of the Photoperiod on the Adrenal Gland of the Ferret. Retrieved on 10-27-2007.
  26. [Bell, DVM, PhD, Judith]. "Ferrets & Children". PetEducation. Retrieved 2007-04-26. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (help); Check |author-link1= value (help)
  27. Exotic Pet Laws, Matthew G. Liebman, Animal Legal and Historical Center, Michigan State University College of Law, 2004
  28. New York City Friends of Ferrets v. City of New York, United States District Court, 876 F. Supp. 529 (S.D.N.Y. 1995)
  29. U.S. Centers for Disease Control: Dog-Bite-Related Fatalities in United States, 30 May 1997, 46(21); pp. 463-466
  30. U.S. Centers for Disease Control: Dog-Bite-Related Fatalities in United States, 30 May 1997, 46(21); pp. 463-466
  31. Jurek, R.M. 1998. A review of national and California population estimates of pet ferrets. Calif. Dep. Fish and Game, Wildl. Manage. Div., Bird and Mammal Conservation Program Rep. 98-09. Sacramento, CA. 11 pp.
  32. "Ferrets save millennium concert" (HTTP). BBC News. BBC. 1999-12-29. Retrieved 2006-09-12.
  33. "Freddie the Ferret" (HTTP). Time Inc. Retrieved 2007-09-11.
  34. "The poop on where to hide your old pills" (HTTP). Reuters Corp. 2007-11-08. Retrieved 2007-11-08. Unknown parameter |publiser= ignored (|publisher= suggested) (help)
  35. Clapperton, BK (April 1988). "An Olfactory Recognition System in the Ferret Mustela furo L. (Carnivora: Mustelidae)". Animal Behaviour. Academic Press Ltd. 36 (2): 541–553. ISSN: 0003-3472. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (help)
  36. Zhang, JX (November 2005). "Putative Chemosignals of the Ferret (Mustela furo) Associated with Individual and Gender Recognition" (HTML). Chemical Senses. Oxford University Press. 30: 727–737. doi:10.1093/chemse/bji065. Online ISSN: 1464-3553. Retrieved 2007-02-25. Text "23eagwdg " ignored (help); Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (help)
  37. Johnson-Delaney, Cathy A (2006). "Proceedings of the Association of Exotic Mammal Veterinarians" (PDF). AEMV. Retrieved 2007-03-03.
  38. Ferrets, p. 13, by E. Lynn Morton, Barron's Educational Series; Revised edition (August 1, 2000), ISBN 0-7641-1050-0
  39. http://www.ferret.org/events/colors/colorchart.shtm
  40. "Defence News". Yorkshire Regiment makes its debut. UK Ministry of Defence. Retrieved 2007-02-24.
  41. New York Review of Books Death of the Ferret Volume 13, Number 3 · August 21, 1969
  42. "Fish and Game Code Section 2118". California Codes. State of California. Retrieved 2006-09-19.; the Code states, in part: "animals of the families Viverridae and Mustelidae in the order Carnivora are restricted because such animals are undesirable and a menace to native wildlife, the agricultural interests of the state, or to the public health or safety."
  43. "Section 671(c)(2)(K)(5): "Family Mustelidae"". California Code Of Regulations, Title 14: Natural Resources, Division 1: "Fish And Game Commission — Department Of Fish And Game", Subdivision 3: "General Regulations", Chapter 3: "Miscellaneous",Section 671: "Importation, Transportation and Possession of Live Restricted Animals". Retrieved 2006-09-19. Ferrets are not among the exceptions to the classification "Those species listed because they pose a threat to native wildlife, the agriculture interests of the state or to public health or safety are termed "detrimental animals" and are designated by the letter "D".
  44. "News Release:Illegal Ferret Found in Kailua". State of Hawaii Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2006-09-19.
  45. 45.0 45.1 45.2 Katie Redshoes. "Are Ferrets Legal in ...?" (HTTP). List of Ferret-Free Zones. Retrieved 2007-08-26.
  46. [www.dem.ri.gov/pubs/regs/regs/fishwild/f_wferet.pdf "R.I. Ferret Regulations"] Check |url= value (help) (pdf). State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations Department of Environmental Management. June 27, 1997. Retrieved 2007-07-05. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  47. "Wild Bird and Game Bird Breeder Permit Application" (pdf). Illinois Department of Natural Resources. Retrieved 2006-09-12.
  48. "Wild Animal License Application" (pdf). Georgia Department of Natural Resources. Retrieved 2008-05-12.
  49. "Dallas". Prohibited by Ordinance. Ferret Lover's Club of Texas. 1996 – 2005. Retrieved 2006-09-19. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  50. "Animal Services". Dallas City Code, Chapter 7: "Animals"; Article VII: "Miscellaneous". American Legal Publishing Corporation. Retrieved 2006-09-19.
  51. "Travelling with your Pet" (HTTP). Air Canada. Retrieved 2006-09-12.
  52. "Pets as Carry On". Delta Air Lines, Inc. Retrieved 2006-09-12.
  53. "Travelling with animals". Special Requests. Luxair S.A. Retrieved 2006-09-12.
  54. "Can I travel with or ship my pet". Retrieved 2007-03-01.
  55. "What is Ryanair's policy on the carriage of animals?". Baggage. Ryanair.com. Retrieved 2006-09-12.
  56. "US Airways - Pets in the Passenger Cabin". Baggage. US Airways. Retrieved 2006-10-26.
  57. "Southwest Airlines Travel Policies - Animals and Pets". Baggage. Southwest Airlines. Retrieved 2006-10-10.
  58. "Information on taking Pets and Guide dogs on Eurostar". Questions and Answers. Eurostar Group Ltd. Retrieved 2006-09-12.
  59. "Ferrets Intro". Retrieved 2008-05-07.
  60. "Importation of Ferrets into Australia, Import Risk Analysis - Draft Report" (.pdf). Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service (AQIS). August 2000. Retrieved 2006-09-12.
  61. "Importation of Foxes, Skunks, Raccoons and Ferrets". Pet Imports. Canadian Food Inspection Agency. 2006-03-20. Retrieved 2006-09-12.
  62. "PETS: How to bring your ferret into or back into the UK under the Pet Travel Scheme (PETS)". Animal health & welfare. Department of Environment Food and Rural Affairs (defra) © Crown copyright 2006. Retrieved 2006-09-12.


  • Lewington, John H. (2007). Ferret Husbandry, Medicine and Surgery (2nd edition ed.). Elsevier. ISBN 9780702028274.
  • Thomson, P. D. (1951). "A History of the Ferret". Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences (Autumn): 471–480.

External links


ca:Fura cs:Fretka domácí cy:Ffured da:Fritte de:Frettchen eo:Furo gl:Furón io:Fureto it:Mustela putorius furo lv:Mājas sesks hu:Vadászgörény nl:Fret (dier) simple:Ferret fi:Fretti sv:Tamiller wa:Furet