Esophageal cancer other diagnostic studies

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Hadeel Maksoud M.D.[2]


Laparoscopy, thoracoscopy and bronchoscopy can be used in addition to EUS and CT in locally advanced esophageal cancer to accurately diagnose and stage lymph node metastasis.

Other Diagnostic Studies

Laparoscopy and Thoracoscopy

  • Laparoscopic and thoracoscopic staging can be used to more accurately stage regional lymph nodes (particularly celiac and intrathoracic) as compared to EUS.[1][2]
  • They can be used to determine intraperitoneal metstases in those patients with distal esophageal adenocarcinomas.[3]
  • Furthermore, laparoscopy and thoracoscopy is used to limit aggressive treatment in those who have a locally advanced cancer.



  1. Kaushik N, Khalid A, Brody D, Luketich J, McGrath K (2007). "Endoscopic ultrasound compared with laparoscopy for staging esophageal cancer". Ann. Thorac. Surg. 83 (6): 2000–2. doi:10.1016/j.athoracsur.2007.02.023. PMID 17532386.
  2. Krasna MJ, Reed CE, Nedzwiecki D, Hollis DR, Luketich JD, DeCamp MM, Mayer RJ, Sugarbaker DJ (2001). "CALGB 9380: a prospective trial of the feasibility of thoracoscopy/laparoscopy in staging esophageal cancer". Ann. Thorac. Surg. 71 (4): 1073–9. PMID 11308139.
  3. Bryan RT, Cruickshank NR, Needham SJ, Moffitt DD, Young JA, Hallissey MT, Fielding JW (2001). "Laparoscopic peritoneal lavage in staging gastric and oesophageal cancer". Eur J Surg Oncol. 27 (3): 291–7. doi:10.1053/ejso.2001.1113. PMID 11373108.
  4. Riedel M, Hauck RW, Stein HJ, Mounyam L, Schulz C, Schömig A, Siewert JR (1998). "Preoperative bronchoscopic assessment of airway invasion by esophageal cancer: a prospective study". Chest. 113 (3): 687–95. PMID 9515844.

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