Cortisone

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Cortisone
Adult Indications & Dosage
Pediatric Indications & Dosage
Contraindications
Warnings & Precautions
Adverse Reactions
Drug Interactions
Use in Specific Populations
Administration & Monitoring
Overdosage
Pharmacology
Clinical Studies
How Supplied
Images
Patient Counseling Information
Precautions with Alcohol
Brand Names
Look-Alike Names

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Ammu Susheela, M.D. [2]

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Overview

Cortisone is a hormone that is FDA approved for the treatment of primary and secondary adrenocortical deficiency, rheumatic disorders, psoriasis, exfoliative dermatitis, bronchial asthma, allergic conjunctivitis, hemolytic anemia, enteritis, tuberculosis, trichnosis. Common adverse reactions include convulsions, increased intracranial pressure with papilledema, vertigo, headache, psychic disturbances, hirsuitism, glaucoma, exophthalmos.

Adult Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Adult)

Endocrine Disorders
  • Primary or secondary adrenocortical insufficiency (hydrocortisone or cortisone is the first choice; synthetic analogs may be used in conjunction with mineralocorticoids where applicable; in infancy mineralocorticoid supplementation is of particular importance).
  • Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
  • Nonsuppurative thyroiditis
  • Hypercalcemia associated with cancer
Rheumatic Disorders
  • As adjunctive therapy for short-term administration (to tide the patient over an acute episode or exacerbation) in the following conditions
Collagen Diseases
  • During an exacerbation or as maintenance therapy in selected cases of following conditions.
Allergic States
  • Control of severe or incapacitating allergic conditions intractable to adequate trials of conventional treatment of following conditions.
Ophthalmic Diseases
Hematologic Disorders
Neoplastic Diseases
  • For palliative management of following conditions.
  • Leukemias and lymphomas in adults
  • Acute leukemia of childhood
  • Edematous States
  • To induce a diuresis or remission of proteinuria in the nephrotic syndrome, without uremia, of the idiopathic type or that due to lupus erythematosus
Gastrointestinal Diseases
  • To tide the patient over a critical period of the disease in the follwoing conditions.
Miscellaneous
  • Tuberculous meningitis with subarachnoid block or impending block when used concurrently with appropriate antituberculous chemotherapy
  • Trichinosis with neurologic or myocardial involvement.

For Oral Administration=

  • DOSAGE REQUIREMENTS ARE VARIABLE AND MUST BE INDIVIDUALIZED ON THE BASIS OF THE DISEASE AND THE RESPONSE OF THE PATIENT.
  • The initial dosage varies from 25 to 300 mg a day depending on the disease being treated. In less severe diseases doses lower than 25 mg may suffice, while in severe diseases doses higher than 300 mg may be required. The initial dosage should be maintained or adjusted until the patient's response is satisfactory. If satisfactory clinical response does not occur after a reasonable period of time, discontinue cortisone acetate tablets and transfer the patient to other therapy.
  • After a favorable initial response, the proper maintenance dosage should be determined by decreasing the initial dosage in small amounts to the lowest dosage that maintains an adequate clinical response.
  • Patients should be observed closely for signs that might require dosage adjustment, including changes in clinical status resulting from remissions or exacerbations of the disease, individual drug responsiveness, and the effect of stress (e.g., surgery, infection, trauma). During stress it may be necessary to increase dosage temporarily.
  • If the drug is to be stopped after more than a few days of treatment, it usually should be withdrawn gradually.

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Adult)

Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Guideline-Supported Use of Cortisone in adult patients.

Non–Guideline-Supported Use

Pediatric Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Pediatric)

There is limited information regarding FDA-Labeled Use of Cortisone in pediatric patients.

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Pediatric)

Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Guideline-Supported Use of Cortisone in pediatric patients.

Non–Guideline-Supported Use

  • Adrenal insufficiency: 0.5-0.75 mg/kg/day or 20-25 mg/m(2)/day ORALLY divided every 8 hr
  • Adrenal insufficiency: 0.25-0.35 mg/kg/day or 12.5 mg/m(2)/day IM

Contraindications

  • Systemic fungal infections
  • Hypersensitivity to this product

Warnings

  • In patients on corticosteroid therapy subjected to unusual stress, increased dosage of rapidly acting corticosteroids before, during, and after the stressful situation is indicated.
  • Drug-induced secondary adrenocortical insufficiency may result from too rapid withdrawal of corticosteroids and may be minimized by gradual reduction of dosage.
  • This type of relative insufficiency may persist for months after discontinuation of therapy; therefore, in any situation of stress occurring during that period, hormone therapy should be reinstituted.
  • If the patient is receiving steroids already, dosage may have to be increased. Since mineralocorticoid secretion may be impaired, salt and/or a mineralocorticoid should be administered concurrently.
  • Corticosteroids may mask some signs of infection, and new infections may appear during their use. There may be decreased resistance and inability to localize infection when corticosteroids are used.
  • Moreover, corticosteroids may affect the nitroblue-tetrazolium test for bacterial infection and produce false negative results.
  • In cerebral malaria, a double-blind trial has shown that the use of corticosteroids is associated with prolongation of coma and a higher incidence of pneumonia and gastrointestinal bleeding.
  • Corticosteroids may activate latent amebiasis. Therefore, it is recommended that latent or active amebiasis be ruled out before initiating corticosteroid therapy in any patient who has time in the tropics or any patient with unexplained diarrhea.
  • Prolonged use of corticosteroids may produce posterior subsapsular cataracts, glaucoma with possible damage to the optic nerves, and may enhance the establishment of secondary ocular infections due to fungi or viruses.
  • Average and large doses of hydrocortisone or cortisone can cause elevation of blood pressure, salt and water retention, and increased excretion of potassium. These effects are less likely to occur with the synthetic derivatives except when used in large doses.
  • Dietary salt restriction and potassium supplementation may be necessary. All corticosteroids increase calcium excretion.
  • Administration of live virus vaccines, including smallpox, is contraindicated in individuals receiving immunosuppressive doses of corticosteroids. If inactivated viral or bacterial vaccines are administered to individuals receiving immunosuppressive doses of corticosteroids, the expected serum antibody response may not be obtained.
  • However, immunization procedures may be undertaken in patients who are receiving corticosteroids as replacement therapy, e.g., for Addison's disease.
  • Persons who are on drugs which suppress the immune system are more susceptible to infections than healthy individuals. Chickenpox and measles, for example, can have more serious or even fatal course in non-immune children or adults on corticosteroids.
  • In such children or adults who have not had these diseases, particular care should be taken to avoid exposure. How the dose, route and duration of corticosteroid administration affects the risk of developing a disseminated infection is not known. The contribution of the underlying disease and/or prior corticosteroid treatment to the risk is also not known.
  • If exposed to chickenpox, prophylaxis with varicella zoster immune globulin (VZIG) may be indicated. If exposed to measles, prophylaxis with pooled intramuscular immunoglobulin (IG) may be indicated. (See the respective package inserts for complete VZIG and IG prescribing information). If chickenpox develops, treatment with antiviral agents may be considered.
  • The use of cortisone acetate tablets in active tuberculosis should be restricted to those cases of fulminating or disseminated tuberculosis in which the corticosteroid is used for the management of the disease in conjunction with an appropriate antituberculous regimen.
  • If corticosteroids are indicated in patients with latent tuberculosis or tuberculin reactivity, close observation is necessary as reactivation of the disease may occur. During prolonged corticosteroid therapy, these patients should receive chemoprophylaxis.
  • Literature reports suggest an apparent association between use of corticosteroids and left ventricular free wall rupture after a recent myocardial infarction; therefore, therapy with corticosteroids should be used with great caution in these patients.

Adverse Reactions

Clinical Trials Experience

There is limited information regarding Clinical Trial Experience of Cortisone in the drug label.

Postmarketing Experience

Fluid and Electrolyte Disturbances
  • Sodium retention
  • Fluid retention
  • Congestive heart failure in susceptible patients
  • Potassium loss
  • Hypokalemic alkalosis
  • Hypertension
Musculoskeletal
Gastrointestinal
Dermatologic
  • Impaired wound healing
  • Thin fragile skin
  • Petechiae and ecchymoses
  • Erythema
  • Increased sweating
  • May suppress reactions to skin tests
  • Other cutaneous reactions, such as allergic dermatitis, urticaria, angioneurotic edema
Neurologic
Endocrine
  • Menstrual irregularities
  • Development of cushingoid state
  • Suppression of growth in children
  • Secondary adrenocortical and pituitary unresponsiveness, particularly in times of stress, as in trauma, surgery, or illness
  • Decreased carbohydrate tolerance
  • Manifestations of latent diabetes mellitus
  • Increased requirements for insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents in diabetics
  • Hirsutism
Ophthalmic
Metabolic
  • Negative nitrogen balance due to protein catabolism
Cardiovascular

Drug Interactions

There is limited information regarding Cortisone Drug Interactions in the drug label.

Use in Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category (FDA): D

  • Since adequate human reproduction studies have not been done with corticosteroids, use of these drugs in pregnancy or in women of childbearing potential requires that the anticipated benefits be weighed against the possible hazards to the mother and embryo or fetus.
  • Infants born of mothers who have received substantial doses of corticosteroids during pregnancy should be carefully observed for signs of hypoadrenalism.
  • Corticosteroids appear in breast milk and could suppress growth, interfere with endogenous corticosteroid production, or cause other unwanted effects. Mothers taking pharmacologic doses of corticosteroids should be advised not to nurse.


Pregnancy Category (AUS): A

  • Australian Drug Evaluation Committee (ADEC) Pregnancy Category

There is no Australian Drug Evaluation Committee (ADEC) guidance on usage of Cortisone in women who are pregnant.

Labor and Delivery

There is no FDA guidance on use of Cortisone during labor and delivery.

Nursing Mothers

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Cortisone with respect to nursing mothers.

Pediatric Use

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Cortisone with respect to pediatric patients.

Geriatic Use

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Cortisone with respect to geriatric patients.

Gender

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Cortisone with respect to specific gender populations.

Race

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Cortisone with respect to specific racial populations.

Renal Impairment

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Cortisone in patients with renal impairment.

Hepatic Impairment

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Cortisone in patients with hepatic impairment.

Females of Reproductive Potential and Males

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Cortisone in women of reproductive potentials and males.

Immunocompromised Patients

There is no FDA guidance one the use of Cortisone in patients who are immunocompromised.

Administration and Monitoring

Administration

  • Oral
  • Intravenous

Monitoring

There is limited information regarding Monitoring of Cortisone in the drug label.

IV Compatibility

There is limited information regarding IV Compatibility of Cortisone in the drug label.

Overdosage

  • Reports of acute toxicity and/or death following overdosage of glucocorticoids are rare. In the event of overdosage, no specific antidote is available; treatment is supportive and symptomatic.
  • The intraperitoneal LD50 of cortisone acetate in female mice was 1405 mg/kg.

Pharmacology

Template:Chembox E number
Cortisone
IUPAC name (8S,9S,10R,13S,14S,17R)-17-Hydroxy-17-(2-hydroxyacetyl)-10,13-dimethyl-1,2,6,7,8,9,12,14,15,16-decahydrocyclopenta[a]phenanthrene-3,11-dione
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChEBI
ChEMBL
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard Lua error in Module:Wikidata at line 879: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value). Lua error in Module:Wikidata at line 879: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
KEGG
MeSH Cortisone
UNII
Properties
C21H28O5
Molar mass 360.45 g·mol−1
Melting point
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Infobox disclaimer and references

Mechanism of Action

  • Naturally occurring glucocorticoids (hydrocortisone and cortisone), which also have salt-retaining properties, are used as replacement therapy in adrenocortical deficiency states. They are also used for their potent anti-inflammatory effects in disorders of many organ systems.
  • Glucocorticoids cause profound and varied metabolic effects. In addition, they modify the body's immune responses to diverse stimuli.

Structure

  • Glucocorticoids are adrenocortical steroids, both naturally occurring and synthetic, which are readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Cortisone acetate is a white or practically white, odorless, crystalline powder. It is stable in air. It is insoluble in water. The molecular weight is 402.49. It is designated chemically as 21-(acetyloxy)-17-hydroxypregn-4-ene-3,11,20-trione. The molecular formula is C23H30O6 and the structural formula is
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • Cortisone Acetate tablets contain 25 mg of cortisone acetate in each tablet.
  • Inactive ingredients are Anhydrous Lactose, Colloidal Silicon Dioxide, Magnesium Stearate, Microcrystalline Cellulose, Sodium Lauryl Sulfate, and Sodium Starch Glycolate.

Pharmacodynamics

There is limited information regarding Pharmacodynamics of Cortisone in the drug label.

Pharmacokinetics

There is limited information regarding Pharmacokinetics of Cortisone in the drug label.

Nonclinical Toxicology

There is limited information regarding Nonclinical Toxicology of Cortisone in the drug label.

Clinical Studies

There is limited information regarding Clinical Studies of Cortisone in the drug label.

How Supplied

  • Cortisone Acetate Tablets USP 25 mg: White, Round, Scored Tablet; Imprinted "West-ward 202."
  • Bottles of 100 tablets (NDC 60429-015-01).

Storage

  • Store at 20-25°C (68-77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Protect from light and moisture.
  • Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP using a child-resistant closure.

Images

Drug Images

Package and Label Display Panel

This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
Cortisone 01.jpg
This image of the FDA label is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
DailyMed - CORTISONE ACETATE- cortisone acetate tablet .png
This image of the FDA label is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

Patient Counseling Information

There is limited information regarding Patient Counseling Information of Cortisone in the drug label.

Precautions with Alcohol

  • Alcohol-Cortisone interaction has not been established. Talk to your doctor about the effects of taking alcohol with this medication.

Brand Names

  • CORTISONE ACETATE ®[1]

Look-Alike Drug Names

There is limited information regarding Cortisone Look-Alike Drug Names in the drug label.

Drug Shortage Status

Price

References

The contents of this FDA label are provided by the National Library of Medicine.

  1. "CORTISONE ACETATE- cortisone acetate tablet".

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