Congenital heart disease outcomes

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]Associate Editor-In-Chief: Keri Shafer, M.D. [2], Atif Mohammad, M.D., Priyamvada Singh, MBBS


It is now estimated that the number of adults in the United States who have congenital heart disease is approaching one million. Because of advances in cardiac surgery, many who would not previously have survived childhood, now lead normal or relatively normal lives. However, some increase in complications has been observed in adults who were previously thought to have had successful repair of heart defects. These complications include cardiac arrhythmia, disorders of heart valves, and heart failure. Regular check-ups by cardiologists are now recommended for patients with histories of congenital heart disease, including those who may have previously been told that their defects were successfully repaired. Since most adult cardiologists have little experience with congenital heart disease, congenital heart disease centers[1] have been developed to care for adult patients with more severe congenital heart disease. It is thought that some patients, especially those with more complex disorders, and women who are pregnant or considering pregnancy, would likely do better if they are followed in specialty centers. Guidelines[2] have been developed regarding which patients may be successfully followed in non-specialized cardiology practices, and which should be seen in adult congenital heart disease centers.

2008 ACC/AHA Guidelines for the Management of Adults With Congenital Heart Disease (DO NOT EDIT)[3]

Evaluation and Surgical Intervention (DO NOT EDIT)[3]

Class I
"1. Any patient with CHD who has had coronary artery manipulation should be evaluated for coronary artery patency, function, and anatomic integrity at least once in adulthood. (Level of Evidence: C)"
"2. Surgeons with training and expertise in CHD should perform operations for the treatment of coronary artery anomalies. (Level of Evidence: C)"


  1. "Clinic Directory". Retrieved 2013-01-04.
  2. "CardioSource - Home". Retrieved 2013-01-04.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Warnes CA, Williams RG, Bashore TM, Child JS, Connolly HM, Dearani JA; et al. (2008). "ACC/AHA 2008 guidelines for the management of adults with congenital heart disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to Develop Guidelines on the Management of Adults With Congenital Heart Disease). Developed in Collaboration With the American Society of Echocardiography, Heart Rhythm Society, International Society for Adult Congenital Heart Disease, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons". J Am Coll Cardiol. 52 (23): e1–121. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2008.10.001. PMID 19038677.

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