Congenital heart disease prevention

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor-In-Chief: Keri Shafer, M.D. [2], Atif Mohammad, M.D., Priyamvada Singh, M.B.B.S.[3]


Prevention is an integral element for expectant mothers. The following details specific behaviors an expectant mother can take to reduce the risk for a congenital heart defect.


  • No medication should be taken in pregnancy without prior physician consultation.
  • Appropriate rediological equipment and techniques for reducing gonadal and fetal radiation exposure.
  • Prenatal screening - Amniocentesis, Chorionic villous sampling
  • Immunization of children with rubella vaccine
  • Fetal echocardiography

2008 ACC/AHA Guidelines for the Management of Adults With Congenital Heart Disease (DO NOT EDIT)[1]

Recommendations for Infective Endocarditis (DO NOT EDIT)[1]

Class I
"1. ACHD patients must be informed of their potential risk for infective endocarditis (IE) and should be provided with the American Heart Association (AHA) information card with instructions for prophylaxis. (Level of Evidence: B) "
"2. When patients with ACHD present with an unexplained febrile illness and potential IE, blood cultures should be drawn before antibiotic treatment is initiated to avoid delay in diagnosis due to "culture-negative" IE. (Level of Evidence: B)"
"3. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) should be performed when the diagnosis of native-valve IE is suspected. (Level of Evidence: B)"
"4. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is indicated if TTE windows are inadequate or equivocal, in the presence of a prosthetic valve or material or surgically constructed shunt, in the presence of complex congenital cardiovascular anatomy, or to define possible complications of endocarditis (e.g., sepsis, abscess, valvular destruction or dehiscence, embolism, or hemodynamic instability). [2](Level of Evidence: B)"
"5. ACHD patients with evidence of IE should have early consultation with a surgeon with experience in ACHD because of the potential for rapid deterioration and concern about possible infection of prosthetic material. (Level of Evidence: C)"
Class III
"1. Prophylaxis against IE is not recommended for nondental procedures (such as esophagogastroduodenoscopy or colonoscopy) in the absence of active infection. (Level of Evidence: C) "
Class IIa
"1. Antibiotic prophylaxis before dental procedures that involve manipulation of gingival tissue or the periapical region of teeth or perforation of the oral mucosa is reasonable in patients with CHD with the highest risk for adverse outcome from IE including those with the following indications: "
"a. Prosthetic cardiac valve or prosthetic material used for cardiac valve repair. (Level of Evidence: B) "
"b. Previous IE. (Level of Evidence: B) "
"c. Unrepaired and palliated cyanotic CHD, including surgically constructed palliative shunts and conduits. (Level of Evidence: B) "
"d. Completely repaired CHD with prosthetic materials, whether placed by surgery or by catheter intervention, during the first 6 months after the procedure. (Level of Evidence: B) "
"e. Repaired CHD with residual defects at the site or adjacent to the site of a prosthetic patch or prosthetic device that inhibits endothelialization. (Level of Evidence: B) "
"2. It is reasonable to consider antibiotic prophylaxis against IE before vaginal delivery at the time of membrane rupture in select patients with the highest risk of adverse outcomes. This includes patients with the following indications: "
"a. Prosthetic cardiac valve or prosthetic material used for cardiac valve repair. (Level of Evidence: C) "
"b. Unrepaired and palliated cyanotic CHD, including surgically constructed palliative shunts and conduits. (Level of Evidence: C) "


  1. 1.0 1.1 Warnes CA, Williams RG, Bashore TM, Child JS, Connolly HM, Dearani JA; et al. (2008). "ACC/AHA 2008 guidelines for the management of adults with congenital heart disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to Develop Guidelines on the Management of Adults With Congenital Heart Disease). Developed in Collaboration With the American Society of Echocardiography, Heart Rhythm Society, International Society for Adult Congenital Heart Disease, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons". J Am Coll Cardiol. 52 (23): e1–121. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2008.10.001. PMID 19038677.
  2. Wilson W, Taubert KA, Gewitz M, Lockhart PB, Baddour LM, Levison M, Bolger A, Cabell CH, Takahashi M, Baltimore RS, Newburger JW, Strom BL, Tani LY, Gerber M, Bonow RO, Pallasch T, Shulman ST, Rowley AH, Burns JC, Ferrieri P, Gardner T, Goff D, Durack DT (2007). "Prevention of infective endocarditis: guidelines from the American Heart Association: a guideline from the American Heart Association Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis, and Kawasaki Disease Committee, Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, and the Council on Clinical Cardiology, Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia, and the Quality of Care and Outcomes Research Interdisciplinary Working Group". Circulation. 116 (15): 1736–54. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.183095. PMID 17446442. Retrieved 2012-11-06. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)

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