Confusion laboratory findings

Jump to navigation Jump to search

Confusion Microchapters


Patient Information




Differentiating Confusion from other Symptoms

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors

Natural History, Complications and Prognosis


History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings


Chest X Ray



Echocardiography or Ultrasound

Other Imaging Findings

Other Diagnostic Studies


Medical Therapy


Primary Prevention

Secondary Prevention

Cost-Effectiveness of Therapy

Future or Investigational Therapies

Case Studies

Case #1

Confusion laboratory findings On the Web

Most recent articles

Most cited articles

Review articles

CME Programs

Powerpoint slides


American Roentgen Ray Society Images of Confusion laboratory findings

All Images
Echo & Ultrasound
CT Images

Ongoing Trials at Clinical

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse

NICE Guidance

FDA on Confusion laboratory findings

CDC on Confusion laboratory findings

Confusion laboratory findings in the news

Blogs on Confusion laboratory findings

Directions to Hospitals Treating Confusion

Risk calculators and risk factors for Confusion laboratory findings

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] ; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Aditya Govindavarjhulla, M.B.B.S. [2]


Several laboratory tests are available for evaluating confusion. It is a physician's role to choose the most useful test based upon the history of the person. For example, a patient presenting with confusion, severe neck stiffness, headaches, and fever should be evaluated for infective foci.

Laboratory Findings

  • A large number of tests are needed in patients that present with confusion. Most of the tests are to determine the cause of confusion. A careful history can reduce the burden of unnecessary tests.
  • Routine blood tests include a CBC to assess the general condition of the patient.
  • Blood for toxins and drugs.
  • Urine analysis and culture.
  • Blood culture if infectious cause has to be evaluated.
  • Blood gas analysis if any metabolic derangements are suspected.
  • Vitamin assays and cholesterol levels may indicate nutritional status.
  • Renal function tests and liver function tests are useful if they are the cause of confusion.
  • Assessments of hormone levels may be useful especially thyroid.


Template:WH Template:WS