Confusion physical examination
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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D.  ; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Aditya Govindavarjhulla, M.B.B.S. 
In cases of confusion, a physical examination helps in localizing the lesion if the cause is from the brain. It also gives clues to the underlying cause of the disease. A complete neurological examination may not be done due to a limitation of the patient's condition.
A comprehensive examination may be tough due to an altered mental status of the patient.
- General behavior
- Language or speech defects
- Level of arousal
- Presence of agitation, restlessness, hyperactivity, anxiety
- Temperature: An increase in temperature is significant for some infective foci.
- Blood pressure: If the blood pressure is decreased, it can be indicative of shock and hypoperfusion.
- Pulse: If the pulse is increased, it may be correlated to a raise in temperature.
- Respiratory rate: There may be hyperventilation in a few conditions due to anxiety, but in severe cases leading to a coma, the respiratory rate may be compromised.
- Cranial nerve examination : This is limited by uncooperative patients. Funduscopic examination helps in checking for papilledema or hemorrhages. Checking for a gag reflex to ensure safe oral feeds and medications.
- Motor examination : This can help in diagnosing an underlying brain disease.
- Gait evaluation : This can be used to check for a cerebellar lesion.
- Skull fracture - Trauma
- Neck stiffness - Meningitis
- Lip erosions - Ingestion of poisons
- Indwelling catheters - Sepsis
- Tongue bites - Seizures
- Neck swelling - Thyroid disease
- Signs of liver failure
- Excessive sweating - Dehydration, hypoglycemia