CBL (gene)

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Cbl (named after Casitas B-lineage Lymphoma) is a mammalian gene encoding the protein CBL which is an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase involved in cell signalling and protein ubiquitination. Mutations to this gene have been implicated in a number of human cancers, particularly acute myeloid leukaemia.[1]


In 1989 a virally encoded portion of the chromosomal mouse Cbl gene was the first member of the Cbl family to be discovered[2] and was named v-Cbl to distinguish it from normal mouse c-Cbl. The virus used in the experiment was a retrovirus known as Cas-Br-M, and was found to have excised approximately a third of the original c-Cbl gene from mice it was injected into. Sequencing revealed that the portion carried by the retrovirus encoded a tyrosine kinase binding domain, and that this was the oncogenic form as retroviruses carrying full-length c-Cbl did not induce tumour formation. The resultant transformed retrovirus was found to consistently induce a type of pre-B lymphoma, known as Casitas B-lineage lymphoma, in infected mice.


Full length c-Cbl has been found to consist of several regions encoding for functionally distinct protein domains:

This domain structure and the tyrosine and serine-rich content of the protein product is typical of an "adaptor molecule" used in cell signalling pathways.[3]


Three mammalian homologues have been characterized, which all differ in their ability to function as adaptor proteins due to the differing lengths of their C-terminal UBA domains:

  1. c-Cbl: ubiquitously expressed, 906 and 913 amino acids in length in humans and mice respectively
  2. Cbl-b: ubiquitously expressed, 982 amino acids long.
  3. Cbl-c: lacks the UBA domain and is therefore only 474 amino acids in length. It is primarily expressed in epithelial cells however its function is poorly understood.

Both c-Cbl and Cbl-b have orthologues in D. melanogaster (D-Cbl) and C. elegans (Sli-1), hinting at a long evolutionary path for these proteins.[3]


Ubiquitin ligase

Ubiquitination is the process of chemically attaching ubiquitin monomers to a protein, thereby targeting it for degradation. As this is a multi-step process, several different enzymes are involved, the final one being a member of the E3 family of ligases. Cbl functions as an E3 ligase, and therefore is able to catalyse the formation of a covalent bond between ubiquitin and Cbl's protein substrate - typically a receptor tyrosine kinase. The RING-finger domain mediates this transfer, however like other E3 ligases of the RING type no intermediate covalent bond is formed between ubiquitin and the RING-finger domain. The stepwise attachment of ubiquitin to the substrate receptor tyrosine kinase can lead to its removal from the plasma membrane and subsequent trafficking to the lysosome for degradation.


Cbl gene has been shown to interact with:


  1. Naramura M, Nadeau S, Mohapatra B, Ahmad G, Mukhopadhyay C, Sattler M, Raja SM, Natarajan A, Band V, Band H (2011). "Mutant Cbl proteins as oncogenic drivers in myeloproliferative disorders". Oncotarget. 2 (3): 245–50. doi:10.18632/oncotarget.233. PMC 3134300. PMID 21422499.
  2. Langdon WY, Hartley JW, Klinken SP, Ruscetti SK, Morse HC (1989). "v-cbl, an oncogene from a dual-recombinant murine retrovirus that induces early B-lineage lymphomas". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86 (4): 1168–72. doi:10.1073/pnas.86.4.1168. PMC 286647. PMID 2784003.
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  5. 5.0 5.1 Soubeyran P, Barac A, Szymkiewicz I, Dikic I (February 2003). "Cbl-ArgBP2 complex mediates ubiquitination and degradation of c-Abl". Biochem. J. 370 (Pt 1): 29–34. doi:10.1042/BJ20021539. PMC 1223168. PMID 12475393.
  6. Flanders JA, Feng Q, Bagrodia S, Laux MT, Singavarapu A, Cerione RA (August 2003). "The Cbl proteins are binding partners for the Cool/Pix family of p21-activated kinase-binding proteins". FEBS Lett. 550 (1–3): 119–23. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(03)00853-6. PMID 12935897.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 Ng C, Jackson RA, Buschdorf JP, Sun Q, Guy GR, Sivaraman J (March 2008). "Structural basis for a novel intrapeptidyl H-bond and reverse binding of c-Cbl-TKB domain substrates". EMBO J. 27 (5): 804–16. doi:10.1038/emboj.2008.18. PMC 2265755. PMID 18273061.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Petrelli A, Gilestro GF, Lanzardo S, Comoglio PM, Migone N, Giordano S (March 2002). "The endophilin-CIN85-Cbl complex mediates ligand-dependent downregulation of c-Met". Nature. 416 (6877): 187–90. doi:10.1038/416187a. PMID 11894096.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 Haglund K, Ivankovic-Dikic I, Shimokawa N, Kruh GD, Dikic I (May 2004). "Recruitment of Pyk2 and Cbl to lipid rafts mediates signals important for actin reorganization in growing neurites". J. Cell Sci. 117 (Pt 12): 2557–68. doi:10.1242/jcs.01148. PMID 15128873.
  10. Kirsch KH, Georgescu MM, Shishido T, Langdon WY, Birge RB, Hanafusa H (February 2001). "The adapter type protein CMS/CD2AP binds to the proto-oncogenic protein c-Cbl through a tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated Src homology 3 domain interaction". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (7): 4957–63. doi:10.1074/jbc.M005784200. PMID 11067845.
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  12. Mancini A, Koch A, Wilms R, Tamura T (April 2002). "c-Cbl associates directly with the C-terminal tail of the receptor for the macrophage colony-stimulating factor, c-Fms, and down-modulates this receptor but not the viral oncogene v-Fms". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (17): 14635–40. doi:10.1074/jbc.M109214200. PMID 11847211.
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  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 Erdreich-Epstein A, Liu M, Kant AM, Izadi KD, Nolta JA, Durden DL (April 1999). "Cbl functions downstream of Src kinases in Fc gamma RI signaling in primary human macrophages". J. Leukoc. Biol. 65 (4): 523–34. PMID 10204582.
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  17. Kyono WT, de Jong R, Park RK, Liu Y, Heisterkamp N, Groffen J, Durden DL (November 1998). "Differential interaction of Crkl with Cbl or C3G, Hef-1, and gamma subunit immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif in signaling of myeloid high affinity Fc receptor for IgG (Fc gamma RI)". J. Immunol. 161 (10): 5555–63. PMID 9820532.
  18. Park RK, Kyono WT, Liu Y, Durden DL (May 1998). "CBL-GRB2 interaction in myeloid immunoreceptor tyrosine activation motif signaling". J. Immunol. 160 (10): 5018–27. PMID 9590251.
  19. 19.0 19.1 Taher TE, Tjin EP, Beuling EA, Borst J, Spaargaren M, Pals ST (October 2002). "c-Cbl is involved in Met signaling in B cells and mediates hepatocyte growth factor-induced receptor ubiquitination". J. Immunol. 169 (7): 3793–800. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.169.7.3793. PMID 12244174.
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  23. 23.0 23.1 Tvorogov D, Carpenter G (July 2002). "EGF-dependent association of phospholipase C-gamma1 with c-Cbl". Exp. Cell Res. 277 (1): 86–94. doi:10.1006/excr.2002.5545. PMID 12061819.
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  27. 27.0 27.1 Park RK, Erdreich-Epstein A, Liu M, Izadi KD, Durden DL (December 1999). "High affinity IgG receptor activation of Src family kinases is required for modulation of the Shc-Grb2-Sos complex and the downstream activation of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (reduced) oxidase". J. Immunol. 163 (11): 6023–34. PMID 10570290.
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  29. Liu SK, McGlade CJ (December 1998). "Gads is a novel SH2 and SH3 domain-containing adaptor protein that binds to tyrosine-phosphorylated Shc". Oncogene. 17 (24): 3073–82. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1202337. PMID 9872323.
  30. Ettenberg SA, Keane MM, Nau MM, Frankel M, Wang LM, Pierce JH, Lipkowitz S (March 1999). "cbl-b inhibits epidermal growth factor receptor signaling". Oncogene. 18 (10): 1855–66. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1202499. PMID 10086340.
  31. 31.0 31.1 Robertson H, Langdon WY, Thien CB, Bowtell DD (November 1997). "A c-Cbl yeast two hybrid screen reveals interactions with 14-3-3 isoforms and cytoskeletal components". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 240 (1): 46–50. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1997.7608. PMID 9367879.
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