Boil natural history, complications and prognosis
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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. ; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Yamuna Kondapally, M.B.B.S
If left untreated, patients with boils (furuncles) may progress to develop carbuncles, fever, and lymphadenopathy. The most common complications of boils include scarring and recurrence. Other complications include septicemia leading to abscess of spinal cord, brain, kidneys, or other organs. The prognosis is generally good, however, it varies with underlying risk factors.
- If left untreated, patients with boils may progress to develop carbuncles, fever and lymphadenopathy. The most common complications of boils include scarring and recurrence. Other rare complications are bacteremia, fever, and abscess of spinal cord, brain, kidneys, or other organs.
- Recurrent furunculosis is commonly caused by methicillin susceptible staphylococcus aureus however Panton-Valentine leukocidin staphylococcus aureus (PVL-SA) and community acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) is the leading cause of severe infection.
Common complications of furuncles include:
- Permanent scarring
- Abscess of the skin, spinal cord, brain, kidneys, or other organ
- Infection of brain
- Infection of spinal cord
- Spread of infection to other parts of body or skin surfaces
- Prognosis is generally good and a full recovery is expected.
- The prognosis varies with underlying risk factors or subsequent complications.
- ↑ Venniyil PV, Ganguly S, Kuruvila S, Devi S (2016). "A study of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in patients with pyoderma". Indian Dermatol Online J. 7 (3): 159–63. doi:10.4103/2229-5178.182373. PMC 4886585. PMID 27294048.
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 Ibler KS, Kromann CB (2014). "Recurrent furunculosis - challenges and management: a review". Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 7: 59–64. doi:10.2147/CCID.S35302. PMC 3934592. PMID 24591845.
- ↑ Masiuk H, Kopron K, Grumann D, Goerke C, Kolata J, Jursa-Kulesza J; et al. (2010). "Association of recurrent furunculosis with Panton-Valentine leukocidin and the genetic background of Staphylococcus aureus". J Clin Microbiol. 48 (5): 1527–35. doi:10.1128/JCM.02094-09. PMC 2863926. PMID 20200289.
- ↑ ROODYN L (1954). "Staphylococcal infections in general practice". Br Med J. 2 (4900): 1322–5. PMC 2080205. PMID 13209110.
- ↑ Medows M, Sharma A (2013). "Lancing of a boil leading to severe invasive methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus infection in an adolescent". BMJ Case Rep. 2013. doi:10.1136/bcr-2013-200651. PMC 3863041. PMID 24336580.
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 MedlinePlus https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001474.htm August 1,2016 Accessed on August 10,2016
- ↑ ANNING ST (1953). "Recurrent boils". Br Med J. 1 (4812): 721–3. PMC 2015621. PMID 13032475.