Aortic dissection causes

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Aortic dissection Microchapters


Patient Information


Historical Perspective




Differentiating Aortic dissection from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors


Natural History, Complications and Prognosis


Diagnostic Study of Choice

History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings



Echocardiography and Ultrasound

CT scan


Other Imaging Findings

Other Diagnostic Studies


Medical Therapy


Primary Prevention

Secondary Prevention

Special Scenarios

Management during Pregnancy

Case Studies

Case #1

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Vendhan Ramanujam M.B.B.S [2] Sahar Memar Montazerin, M.D.[3]


Atherosclerosis and hypertension are associated with spontaneous aortic dissection, while blunt trauma and sudden deceleration in a motor vehicle accident are major causes of traumatic aortic dissection.


Common Causes

The most common causes of aortic dissection include:[1][2][3][4][5]

Causes by Organ System

Cardiovascular Atherosclerosis, bicuspid aortic valve, hypertension, malignant hypertension, ruptured aortic arch with aberrant left subclavian artery, seat belt aorta, vasculitis
Chemical/Poisoning No underlying causes
Dental No underlying causes
Dermatologic No underlying causes
Drug Side Effect Methonium
Ear Nose Throat No underlying causes
Endocrine Cushing's syndrome
Environmental No underlying causes
Gastroenterologic No underlying causes
Genetic Aneurysms osteoarthritis syndrome, annuloaortic ectasia, bicuspid aortic valve, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Erdheim's cystic medial necrosis, familial aortic dissection, fibromuscular dysplasia, Loeys-Dietz syndrome, Marfan syndrome, mutation of TGF-β receptor genes, mutations in genes encoding α-actin and β-myosin, mutations in SMAD3, mutations in the gene encoding filamin A, Noonan syndrome, osteogenesis imperfecta, pseudoxanthoma elasticum, Turner syndrome
Hematologic No underlying causes
Iatrogenic Aortic valve replacement surgery, cardiac catheterization, coronary artery bypass graft surgery, implantation of stent graft, intra-aortic balloon pump, mitral valve replacement surgery, surgical correction of aortic coarctation
Infectious Disease AIDS, annuloaortic ectasia, aortitis, syphilitic aortitis
Musculoskeletal/Orthopedic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, osteogenesis imperfecta
Neurologic No underlying causes
Nutritional/Metabolic Homocystinuria
Obstetric/Gynecologic No underlying causes
Oncologic No underlying causes
Ophthalmologic No underlying causes
Overdose/Toxicity Cocaine abuse
Psychiatric No underlying causes
Pulmonary No underlying causes
Renal/Electrolyte Polycystic kidney disease
Rheumatology/Immunology/Allergy Aortitis, arteritis, Behçet's disease, giant cell arteritis, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, systemic lupus erythematosus, Takayasu arteritis, vasculitis
Sexual No underlying causes
Trauma Chest trauma, deceleration injuries, motor vehicle accident, seat belt aorta
Urologic No underlying causes
Miscellaneous Connective tissue disorders, heavy exercise, idiopathic


  1. Penn JL, Martindale JL, Milne LW, Marill KA (2015). "Aortic dissection associated with blunt chest trauma diagnosed by elevated D-dimer". Int J Surg Case Rep. 10: 76–9. doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2015.03.027. PMC 4429846. PMID 25805614.
  2. Weissmann-Brenner A, Schoen R, Divon MY (2004). "Aortic dissection in pregnancy". Obstet Gynecol. 103 (5 Pt 2): 1110–3. doi:10.1097/01.AOG.0000124984.82336.43. PMID 15121626.
  3. Brooke V, Goswami S, Mohanty A, Kasi PM (2012). "Aortic dissection and renal failure in a patient with severe hypothyroidism". Case Rep Med. 2012: 842562. doi:10.1155/2012/842562. PMC 3399550. PMID 22829842.
  4. "Classification of diabetic retinopathy from fluorescein angiograms. ETDRS report number 11. Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group". Ophthalmology. 98 (5 Suppl): 807–22. 1991. PMID 2062514.
  5. Cury M, Zeidan F, Lobato AC (2013). "Aortic disease in the young: genetic aneurysm syndromes, connective tissue disorders, and familial aortic aneurysms and dissections". Int J Vasc Med. 2013: 267215. doi:10.1155/2013/267215. PMC 3557640. PMID 23401778.
  6. Larson, Eric W.; Edwards, William D. (1984). "Risk factors for aortic dissection: A necropsy study of 161 cases". The American Journal of Cardiology. 53 (6): 849–855. doi:10.1016/0002-9149(84)90418-1. ISSN 0002-9149.
  7. Januzzi, James L; Isselbacher, Eric M; Fattori, Rossella; Cooper, Jeanna V; Smith, Dean E; Fang, Jianming; Eagle, Kim A; Mehta, Rajendra H; Nienaber, Christoph A; Pape, Linda A (2004). "Characterizing the young patient with aortic dissection: results from the international registry of aortic dissection (IRAD)". Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 43 (4): 665–669. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2003.08.054. ISSN 0735-1097.
  8. "Correspondence". The Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 67 (2): 593. 1999. doi:10.1016/S0003-4975(99)00037-5. ISSN 0003-4975.
  9. Losenno, Katie L.; Goodman, Robert L.; Chu, Michael W. A. (2012). "Bicuspid Aortic Valve Disease and Ascending Aortic Aneurysms: Gaps in Knowledge". Cardiology Research and Practice. 2012: 1–16. doi:10.1155/2012/145202. ISSN 2090-8016.
  10. Senaha S, Uezu T, Shimoji M, Akasaki M (March 2015). "[Stanford type B aortic dissection associated with coarctation of the aorta]". Kyobu Geka (in Japanese). 68 (3): 184–7. PMID 25743550.
  11. Dioguardi GS, Pimenta J, Knoplich J, Ghorayeb N, Ramos LR, Giannini SD (June 1994). "[Risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in physicians. Preliminary data from the VIDAM Project of the Paulista Medical Association]". Arq. Bras. Cardiol. (in Portuguese). 62 (6): 383–8. PMID 7826227.
  12. Caglayan, Ahmet Okay; Dundar, Munis (2009). "Inherited diseases and syndromes leading to aortic aneurysms and dissections". European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. 35 (6): 931–940. doi:10.1016/j.ejcts.2009.01.006. ISSN 1010-7940.
  13. "Acute aortic dissection: pathogenesis, risk factors and diagnosis". Swiss Medical Weekly. 147 (3334). 2017. doi:10.4414/smw.2017.14489. ISSN 1424-7860.
  14. Increased maternal cardiovascular mortality associated with pregnancy in women with Turner syndrome.

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