Acute retinal necrosis risk factors

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Luke Rusowicz-Orazem, B.S.


The primary risk factors for acute retinal necrosis include immunocompromised status and immunosuppression from disease and prolonged corticosteroid use. Genetic predisposition for certain Caucasian and Japanese populations can increase one's odds of developing acute retinal necrosis.

Risk Factors

Risk factors for the development of acute retinal necrosis (ARN) include:[1]


  1. Chun HL, Missotten T, Salzmann J, Lightman SL (2007). "Acute Retinal Necrosis: Features, Management, and Outcomes". Opthalmology. 114: 756–762. Unknown parameter |Issue= ignored (|issue= suggested) (help)
  2. Holland GN, Cornell PJ, Park MS, Barbetti A, Yuge J, Kreiger AE, Kaplan HJ, Pepose JS, Heckenlively JR, Culbertson WW (1989). "An association between acute retinal necrosis syndrome and HLA-DQw7 and phenotype Bw62, DR4". Am. J. Ophthalmol. 108 (4): 370–4. PMID 2801857.
  3. Brydak-Godowska J, Borkowski P, Szczepanik S, Moneta-Wielgoś J, Kęcik D (2014). "Clinical manifestation of self-limiting acute retinal necrosis". Med. Sci. Monit. 20: 2088–96. doi:10.12659/MSM.890469. PMC 4226315. PMID 25356955.
  4. Vandercam T, Hintzen RQ, de Boer JH, Van der Lelij A (2008). "Herpetic encephalitis is a risk factor for retinal necrosis". Neurology. 71 (16): 1268–74. doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000327615.99124.99. PMID 18852442.
  5. Moutschen MP, Scheen AJ, Lefebvre PJ (1992). "Impaired immune responses in diabetes mellitus: analysis of the factors and mechanisms involved. Relevance to the increased susceptibility of diabetic patients to specific infections". Diabete Metab. 18 (3): 187–201. PMID 1397473.
  6. Yamamoto JH, Boletti DI, Nakashima Y, Hirata CE, Olivalves E, Shinzato MM, Okay TS, Santo RM, Duarte MI, Kalil J (2003). "Severe bilateral necrotising retinitis caused by Toxoplasma gondii in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus and diabetes mellitus". Br J Ophthalmol. 87 (5): 651–2. PMC 1771672. PMID 12714420.

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