Schistosomiasis epidemiology and demographics
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The prevalence of schistosomiasis is approximately 268 per 100,000 individuals worldwide. More than 600 million persons are exposed to Schistosoma parasites, 200 million persons are infected, and 20 million symptomatic cases of schistosomiasis are reported worldwide. All age groups are vulnerable to Schistosoma infection, but school-aged children and adolescents living in endemic areas tend to have the highest intensity of disease. There is no racial predilection to schistosomiasis. Schistosomiasis affects men and women equally.
Incidence and prevalence
- The prevalence of schistosomiasis is approximately 268 per 100,000 individuals worldwide.
- Patients of all age groups may develop schistosomiasis, but school-aged children and adolescents living in endemic areas tend to have the highest intensity of disease.
- There is no racial predilection to schistosomiasis.
- Schistosomiasis affects men and women equally.
- The disease is found in tropical countries in Africa, Caribbean, Eastern South America, Southeast Asia and in Middle East.
- Schistosoma mansoni is found in parts of South America and Caribbean, Africa, and Middle East.
- S. haematobium is found in Africa and Middle East; and S. japonicum in Far East.
- S. mekongi and S. intercalatum are found locally in Southeast Asia and Central West Africa, respectively.
- Schistosomiasis is endemic in 74-76 developing countries,[verification needed] infecting more than 207 million people, 85% of whom live in Africa.
|Organ involved||Species||Geographical distribution|
|Intestinal schistosomiasis||Schistosoma mansoni||Africa, Middle East, Caribbean, Brazil, Venezuela and Suriname|
|Schistosoma japonicum||China, Indonesia, Philippines|
|Schistosoma mekongi||Several districts of Cambodia and the Lao People’s Democratic Republic|
|Schistosoma guineensis||Rain forest areas of Central Africa|
|Urogenital schistosomiasis||Schistosoma haematobium||Africa, Middle East, Corsica (France)|
- Weerakoon KG, Gobert GN, Cai P, McManus DP (2015). "Advances in the Diagnosis of Human Schistosomiasis". Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 28 (4): 939–67. doi:10.1128/CMR.00137-14. PMC 4548261. PMID 26224883.
- Oliveira, Guilherme; Rodrigues, Nilton B; Romanha, Alvaro J; Bahia, Diana (2004). "Genome and genomics of schistosomes". Canadian Journal of Zoology. 82 (2): 375–390. doi:10.1139/z03-220. ISSN 0008-4301.