Myocarditis history and symptoms
History and Symptoms
Myocarditis history and symptoms On the Web
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The symptoms and the intensity of symptoms associated with myocarditis are variable. Myocarditis may be associated with no symptoms. If symptoms are present,they may be similar to those seen in the flu. Patients may present with chest pain as a result of the inflammatory process involving the myocardium or with symptoms of congestive heart failure. Patients may complain of palpitations, a racing heart or syncope. In fulminant myocarditis, patients present with the abrupt onset of flu-like symptoms and the abrupt onset of heart failure symptoms. In chronic and acute myocarditis, the onset of symptoms may be more insidious.
Myocarditis should be suspected in a patient with acute decompensation of cardiac function who is at low risk of ischemic heart disease. A history of a recent (within the preceding 2-4 weeks) viral illness is often elicited in a large number of patients with myocarditis. Cardiac specific symptoms may become apparent usually in the subacute virus-clearing phase. In myocarditis due to drug hypersensitivity, patients may give a history of ingesting an offending drug. Drugs associated with myocarditis include amphetamines, benzodiazepines, carbamazepine, chloramphenicol, clozapine, cocaine, cyclophosphamide, dobutamine, methyldopa, penicillin, phenytoin, spironolactone, streptomycin, sulfonamides and tricyclic antidepressants.
Symptoms of myocarditis include:
- Chest pain is often described as stabbing, pleuritic or sharp in character. In a series, 78% of patients were diagnosed with myocarditis when they presented with chest pain.
- Pedal edema in volume overload states.
- Dyspnea on exertion
- Orthopnea in pulmonary congestion.
- Syncope in setting of high grade AV block
- Fever (especially when infectious, e.g. in rheumatic fever)
- Joint pains, and fatigue as seen in viral illness.
- Cyanosis may also be seen in severe cases.
- Sudden death (in young adults, myocarditis causes up to 20% of all cases of sudden death). This is often due to ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation, but may also be due to congestive heart failure.
- ↑ Haas SJ, Hill R, Krum H, Liew D, Tonkin A, Demos L et al. (2007). "Clozapine-associated myocarditis: a review of 116 cases of suspected myocarditis associated with the use of clozapine in Australia during 1993-2003.". Drug Saf 30 (1): 47-57. PMID 17194170.
- ↑ Spear GS (1995). "Eosinophilic explant carditis with eosinophilia: ?Hypersensitivity to dobutamine infusion.". J Heart Lung Transplant 14 (4): 755-60. PMID 7578186.
- ↑ Johnson MR (2004). "Eosinophilic myocarditis in the explanted hearts of cardiac transplant recipients: Interesting pathologic finding or pathophysiologic entity of clinical significance?". Crit Care Med 32 (3): 888-90. PMID 15090985.
- ↑ Feldman AM, McNamara D. Myocarditis. N Engl J Med 2000;343:1388-98. PMID 11070105.
- ↑ Sarda L, Colin P, Boccara F, Daou D, Lebtahi R, Faraggi M et al. (2001). "Myocarditis in patients with clinical presentation of myocardial infarction and normal coronary angiograms.". J Am Coll Cardiol 37 (3): 786-92. PMID 11693753.
- ↑ Eckart RE, Scoville SL, Campbell CL, Shry EA, Stajduhar KC, Potter RN, Pearse LA, Virmani R. Sudden death in young adults: a 25-year review of autopsies in military recruits. Ann Intern Med 2004;141:829-34. PMID 15583223.
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