Internal iliac artery
|Artery: Internal iliac|
|Front of abdomen, showing surface markings for arteries and inguinal canal. The internal iliac artery, here labeled "Hypogastric", is visible in lower right.|
|Latin||arteria iliaca interna|
|Gray's||subject #155 614|
|Source||Common iliac artery|
|Branches||iliolumbar artery, lateral sacral artery, superior gluteal artery, inferior gluteal artery, middle rectal artery, uterine artery, obturator artery, inferior vesical artery, superior vesical artery, obliterated umbilical artery, internal pudendal artery|
|Vein||Internal iliac vein|
|WikiDoc Cardiology News|
Read more about Internal iliac artery in the WikiDoc Cardiology News
|All News Articles|
|Acute Coronary Syndromes|
|Peripheral Arterial Disease|
|Valvular Heart Disease|
WikiDoc Resources for Internal iliac artery
Evidence Based Medicine
Guidelines / Policies / Govt
Patient Resources / Community
Healthcare Provider Resources
Continuing Medical Education (CME)
Experimental / Informatics
It is a short, thick vessel, smaller than the external iliac artery, and about 4 cm in length.
It arises at the bifurcation of the common iliac artery, opposite the lumbosacral articulation (L5/S1 intervertebral disc), and, passing downward to the upper margin of the greater sciatic foramen, divides into two large trunks, an anterior and a posterior.
The following are relations of the artery at various points: it is posterior to the ureter, anterior to the internal iliac vein, the lumbosacral trunk, and the piriformis muscle; near its origin, it is medial to the external iliac vein, which lies between it and the psoas major muscle; it is above the obturator nerve.
The exact arrangement of branches of the internal iliac artery is variable. Generally, the artery divides into an anterior division and a posterior division, with the posterior division giving rise to the superior gluteal, iliolumbar, and lateral sacral arteries. The rest usually arise from the anterior division.
The following are the branches of internal iliac artery. Because it is variable, a listed artery may not be a direct branch, but instead might arise off a direct branch.
|Posterior||Iliolumbar artery||lumbar and iliac branches||psoas major muscle, quadratus lumborum muscle, iliacus muscle|
|Posterior||Lateral sacral arteries||superior and inferior branches||anterior sacral foramina|
|Posterior||Superior gluteal artery||-||greater sciatic foramen|
|Anterior||Obturator artery (occasionally from inferior epigastric artery)||-||obturator canal|
|Anterior||Inferior gluteal artery||-||greater sciatic foramen|
|Anterior||Umbilical artery||superior vesical artery (usually, but sometimes it branches directly from anterior trunk)||medial umbilical ligament|
|Anterior||Uterine artery (females) or deferential artery (males)||superior and vaginal branches||uterus, vas deferens|
|Anterior||Vaginal artery (females, can also arise from uterine artery) or inferior vesical artery (males)||-||vagina, urinary bladder|
|Anterior||Middle rectal artery||-||rectum|
|Anterior||Internal pudendal artery||many branches - see article for details||greater sciatic foramen|
Structure in fetus
At birth, when the placental circulation ceases, the pelvic portion only of the umbilical artery remains patent gives rise to the superior vesical artery (or arteries) of the adult; the remainder of the vessel is converted into a solid fibrous cord, the medial umbilical ligament (otherwise known as the obliterated hypogastric artery) which extends from the pelvis to the umbilicus.
In two-thirds of a large number of cases, the length of the internal iliac varied between 2.25 and 3.4 cm.; in the remaining third it was more frequently longer than shorter, the maximum length being about 7 cm. the minimum about 1 cm.
The lengths of the common iliac and internal iliac arteries bear an inverse proportion to each other, the internal iliac artery being long when the common iliac is short, and vice versa.
The right and left hypogastric arteries in a series of cases often differed in length, but neither seemed constantly to exceed the other.
The circulation after ligature of the internal iliac artery is carried on by the anastomoses of:
- the uterine artery and the ovarian artery (females)
- the vesical arteries (superior vesical artery and inferior vesical artery) of the two sides
- the middle rectal artery and the superior rectal artery
- the obturator artery (by means of its pubic branch) with the vessel of the opposite side, and with the inferior epigastric artery and medial circumflex femoral artery
- the circumflex and perforating branches of the profunda femoris with the inferior gluteal artery
- the superior gluteal artery with the posterior branches of the lateral sacral arteries
- the iliolumbar artery with the last lumbar artery
- the lateral sacral arteries with the median sacral artery
- the superficial iliac circumflex artery with the iliolumbar artery and superior gluteal artery.
- SUNY Labs 44:10-0100
- SUNY Radiology Pelvis:15PelArt
- Cross section at UV pelvis/pelvis-e12-2
- Illustration at wiseowl.com
- Anatomy at MUN first/aart8
- "Variation in Origin of the Parietal Branches of internal iliac artery based on a study of 169 Specimens (108 males and 61 females)." at anatomyatlases.org
- Mnemonic at medicalmnemonics.com 1169 801 3160
- Norman/Georgetown pelvis (pelvicarteries)
This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained herein may be outdated. Please edit the article if this is the case, and feel free to remove this notice when it is no longer relevant.