How to create a Crowdiagnosis page

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Crowdiagnosis
Introduction
Guide
Template
Topics
Checklist
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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Charmaine Patel, M.D. [2]; Rim Halaby, M.D. [3]; Mugilan Poongkunran M.B.B.S [4]; Vendhan Ramanujam M.B.B.S [5]

Overview

Learning and creating a causes page is simple. This section provides you the steps necessary to complete a causes page like create a new page, work with excel, add entries to the causes page, create a WikiDoc risk factors page and quality check.

Create a New Page

Creating a new page on WikiDoc is simple. Please click here for detailed instructions on how to create a new page. Copy the template from the crowdiagnosis project template page to create a new causes page by using the following steps.

  1. Click on the button labeled edit at the top of template page
  2. Right click on your mouse and click on select all in the edit box
  3. Right click on your mouse and click on copy
  4. In the main new causes page, right click on your mouse and click on paste

The Causes page should appear like this page with the following headings:

  • Overview
  • Causes
    • Life Threatening Causes
    • Common Causes
    • Causes by Organ System
    • Causes in Alphabetical Order
  • References

Work with Excel

After claiming your topic from the crowdiagnosis project topics page, the next step is creating a cleaned and categorized causes list using excel. The following are the steps.

  • Click on your topic search results in the "Files" column to download the excel file that contains all the causes pertinent to that medical symptom or sign or disease or abnormal laboratory finding.
  • Remove meaningless or erroneous causes from the excel file.
  • Also search links like The diseases database and other reputable and reliable scholarly sources for collecting the causes.
  • Make sure that you understand the difference between causes and risk factors as there are separate pages for each and you are required to populate the "Risk Factors" page also while working on the "Causes" page.
  • What is a Cause
  • The cause temporally precedes the disease.
  • Per Kenneth Rothman: "An event, condition, or characteristic without which the disease would not have occurred."
  • Per Susser: "A cause is something that makes a difference."
  • Causes can be either a host or environmental factor (e.g., characteristics, conditions, actions of individuals, events, natural, social or economic phenomenons).
  • Causes may be positive (presence of a causative exposure) or negative (lack of a preventive exposure).[1]
  • What is a Risk Factor
  • A risk factor is an environmental, behavioral, or biological factor, if present directly increases the probability of a disease occurrence and if absent or removed reduces the probability. For example, abdominal obesity increases the probability of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and if absent or removed, the probability of developing the disease reduces.
  • Risk factors are a part of the causal chain, or expose the host to the causal chain by being surrogates or markers of a cause and they are not a direct cause by themselves. For example, weight measures such as body mass index (BMI) is a surrogate or a marker of overweight due to adiposity such that high BMI may infer to being overweight due to adiposity, but they by themselves do not mean the person is overweight due to excess adiposity since bones and muscles also contribute to weight.
  • They never result in any outcome of a disease. For example homocysteine as shown by certain studies is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease risk, but lowering homocysteine would not lower the risk of cardiovascular disease.
  • Example: Place of birth, socioeconomic status, and marital status are all associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, but none of these are causes. In this example, place of birth, etc. are surrogates or markers for underlying causes, e.g., populations with a higher prevalence of genetic risk from BRCA1 and BRCA2 alleles, or having fewer children which in turn is a marker for unopposed estrogen stimulation of breast tissue. Being born in northern Europe per se is not a cause; it is a marker for populations that may have a greater genetic predisposition to breast cancer.[2]
  • Cause vs Risk Factor
Cause Risk Factor
Cause is a factor with which a disease will definitely occur and without which a disease will never occur. Risk factor is a factor with which a disease may occur and even without which a disease may still occur.
Example: Mycobacterium tuberculosis as a cause
With mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli exposure, tuberculosis will definitely occur.
Without mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli exposure, tuberculosis will never occur.
Example: Hypertension as a risk factor
With hypertension, cardiovascular disease may occur.
Without hypertension, cardiovascular disease may still occur.
  • Verify each and every cause to ensure that it is correct based on medical literature.
  • Sort the excel spreadsheet to put it in alphabetical order.
  • Make a new column in the excel sheet and type in the formula: =("[["&B1&"]]") where B1 is the entry around which you want the brackets. These bracketed entries can be uploaded in the category of causes page “Causes by Organ System” while editing.
  • Make another column with an asterisks in front of each entry by using the formula: =("*[["&B1&"]]") that can be used for other categories like "Life Threatening Causes", "Common Causes" and "Causes in Alphabetical Order".
  • Copy and paste the lists created in the two new columns into notepad to remove the cells. These entries can now be copied for creating the causes page.
  • Save the causes excel spreadsheet before proceeding further.

Add Entries to the Causes Page

After creating the cleaned and categorized causes list for your topic, you will proceed by adding those entries to the WikiDoc causes page. Add appropriately all the causes entries copied from the notepad to the tables entitled as "Life Threatening Causes", "Common Causes", "Causes by Organ System" and "Causes in Alphabetical Order. If causes fall into two or more organ systems, add them to their respective two or more categories. Add the causes in alphabetical order under the heading "Causes in Alphabetical Order".

Introduction to the Causes Page

  • The page name should be "(Disease name) causes", with only the first letter of the title capitalized.
  • Again remember that causes are different from risk factors. For example, HIV causes AIDS, and the bacteria Bartonella henselae is the cause of cat scratch disease. In contrast, elevated cholesterol is termed a risk factor, but is not the cause of coronary heart disease, childhood obesity is a risk factor, but not the cause of diabetes.
  • As with all microchapter pages liking to the main page, at the top of the edit box put {{CMG}}, your name template, and the microchapter navigation template you created at the beginning.
  • Remember to create links within Wikidoc by placing [[square brackets]] around key words which you want to link to other pages. Make sure you makes your links as specific as possible. For example if a sentence contained the phrase anterior spinal artery syndrome, the link should be to anterior spinal artery syndrome not anterior or artery or syndrome. For more information on how to create links click here.
  • Remember this is not the chapter to describe what the disease causes. What the disease causes would go under the natural history and complications chapter.
  • Remember this is not the chapter where guidance is provided on how to distinguish the disorder from other disorders. That is the chapter on differentiating (disease name)from other diseases.
  • Remember to follow the same format and capitalization of letters as outlined in the causes project template page.
  • You should put the name of the disease in the first sentence of every subsection.

Overview

  • The overview section should include the disease name in the first sentence.
  • The goal is to summarize the page several sentences, and the section can be the same as the causes segment on the overview page.
  • Confirm that the overview statement is in a text format and does not contain bullet points.
  • Confirm that periods, commas and spaces are appropriately placed.
  • Confirm that no text is bolded or italicized randomly in between the text.
  • Make sure to check for spellings and grammatical errors thoroughly.
  • Confirm that there are no floating periods and comas.
  • Confirm that periods and comas are present before the start of references instead at the end to avoid floating periods and comas.
  • Confirm that all the internal links work and there are no black links in between texts.
  • Confirm that no links are created to same page.
  • Make sure to create maximum internal links and for complete words, e.g,
    • Ventricular tachycardia – [[Ventricular]] [[tachycardia]] – not recommended
    • Ventricular tachycardia- [[Ventricular tachycardia]] – recommended
  • To see an example, click here.

Causes

Life Threatening Causes

  • Life threatening causes include conditions which result in death or permanent disability within 24 hours if left untreated.
  • Life threatening causes do not include chronic conditions.
  • Make sure to include the following definition underneath the subheading of every life threatening causes section: Life-threatening causes include conditions which may result in death or permanent disability within 24 hours if left untreated.
  • The list of life threatening causes is arranged in alphabetical order.
  • If the page's disease is itself life-threatening, do not add causes in the life-threatening causes section. Instead, write the following sentence under the subheading:Disease name is a life-threatening condition and must be treated as such irrespective of the causes. Life-threatening conditions may result in death or permanent disability within 24 hours if left untreated.

Common Causes

  • This section is to outline the most common causes of the disease or condition you are describing.
  • This can be done in a list form where causes are arranged in alphabetical order.

Causes by Organ System

  • You can list the causes by organ system here. List the causes, separated by a comma under the appropriate category where it says "No underlying causes". Erase "No underlying causes" if you are listing causes in that category.
  • Make sure that only the first letter of the first word listed in each row is capitalized, the other causes should not be capitalized unless they refer to a proper noun, e.g Hodgkin lymphoma and not hodgkin lymphoma.
  • For an example of the causes by organ system table in a causes microchapter, click here.

References

  • References should be cited for the material that you have put on your page. Type in {{reflist|2}}. This will generate your references in small font, in two columns, with links to the original article and abstract.
  • For information on how to add references into your page, click here.

Create a WikiDoc Risk Factors Page

  • With the risk factors you collected during the causes search of your topic, create a new excel spreadsheet for risk factors.
  • Make a new column with an asterisks in front of each entry by using the formula: =("*[["&B1&"]]").
  • Copy and paste the lists created in the new column into notepad to remove the cells. These entries can now be copied for creating the risk factors page.
  • Save the risk factors excel spreadsheet before proceeding further.

Introduction to the Risk Factors Page

  • The page name should be "(Disease name) risk factors", with only the first letter of the title capitalized.
  • Goal: Risk factors are behaviors and conditions that put the patient at risk for developing a disease.
  • A risk factor is anything that increases a person's chance of developing a disease. Although risk factors often influence the development of a given disorder, most do not directly cause the disorder.
  • Remember risk factors are different from cause. For example, elevated cholesterol is termed a risk factor, but is not the cause of coronary heart disease, childhood obesity is a risk factor, but not the cause of diabetes. In contrast, HIV causes AIDS, the bacteria Bartonella henselae is the cause of cat scratch disease.
  • As with all microchapter pages linking to the main page, at the top of the edit box put {{CMG}}, your name template, and the microchapter navigation template you created at the beginning.
  • Remember to create links within Wikidoc by placing [[square brackets]] around key words which you want to link to other pages. Make sure you makes your links as specific as possible. For example if a sentence contained the phrase anterior spinal artery syndrome, the link should be to anterior spinal artery syndrome not anterior or artery or syndrome. For more information on how to create links click here.
  • Remember to follow the same format and capitalization of letters as outlined in the template below.
  • You should include the name of the disease in the first sentence of every subsection.

Overview

  • The overview section should include the disease name in the first sentence. It can state "Risk factors for (disease name) are...."
  • The goal is to summarize the risk factor page in several sentences. This section can be the same as the risk factors segment on the overview page.
  • To see an example, click here

Common Risk Factors

  • Here you can list the common risk factors for the disease.
  • This may be a good section to include a table. For information on inserting tables, click here.

Less Common Risk Factors

  • Here you can list the less common risk factors for the disease.
  • This may also be a good section to include a table.

References

  • References should be cited for the material that you have put on your page. Type in {{reflist|2}}. This will generate your references in small font, in two columns, with links to the original article and abstract.
  • For information on how to add references into your page, click here.

Quality Check

Do a self quality check on your completed causes page using the below checklist and then email the chief quality officer [6] regarding your completed topic for the final quality check. Follow up accordingly.

Introduction

The following is a checklist to help you improve the quality of the causes page that you are editing. The aim of having a checklist is to ensure consistency among all pages.

Checklist

  • Confirm that every page starts with __NOTOC__
  • Confirm that there is no separate line for Associate Editor in Chief.
  • Confirm that multiple editor’s title should be separated by a semicolon.
  • Make sure to remove the following statements when you finish adding content to the page:
    • Please help WikiDoc by adding content here. It's easy! Click here to learn about editing.
    • Please help WikiDoc by adding more content here. It's easy! Click here to learn about editing.
  • Confirm that every chapter has three headings:

==Overview==

==Causes==

==References==

  • Confirm that the headings are capitalized correctly.
  • Make sure that no reference is put next to the headings.

Overview

  • Confirm that the overview statement is in a text format and does not contain bullet points.
  • Confirm that periods, commas and spaces are appropriately placed.
  • Confirm that no text is bolded or italicized randomly in between the text.
  • Make sure to check for spellings and grammatical errors thoroughly.Confirm that there are no floating periods and comas.
  • Confirm that periods and comas are present before the start of references instead at the end to avoid floating periods and comas.
  • Confirm that all the internal links work and there are no black links in between texts.
  • Confirm that no links are created to same page.
  • Make sure to create maximum internal links and for complete words, e.g,
    • Ventricular tachycardia – [[Ventricular]] [[tachycardia]] – not recommended
    • Ventricular tachycardia- [[Ventricular tachycardia]] – recommended

Causes

  • Confirm the presence of the following subcategories in the following order:
    • Life Threatening Causes
    • Common Causes
    • Causes by Organ System
    • Causes in Alphabetical Order
  • Make sure to capitalize the first letter of every word of the subcategories.
  • Make sure to have subcategories under “===”.
  • Make sure that no references are put next to the subcategory heading.
  • Make sure that each cause is a true cause of the symptom and double check in case of doubt.
  • Confirm that all the causes are linked and appropriate references are cited.
  • In case the cause does not link to a page on wikidoc but might fall under another page create an internal link as follows:
    • [[Borrelia]] infection- not recommended
    • [[Borrelia|Borrelia infection]]- recommended
  • Confirm that all the internal links work and there are no black links in between texts.
  • Make sure to create maximum internal links and for complete words, e.g,
    • Ventricular tachycardia – [[Ventricular]] [[tachycardia]] – not recommended
    • Ventricular tachycardia- [[Ventricular tachycardia]] – recommended
  • Under the subheading "Life Threatening Causes":
    • Confirm the presence of the following definition underneath the subheading of every life threatening causes section: Life-threatening causes include conditions which may result in death or permanent disability within 24 hours if left untreated.
    • Make sure that the causes do not include chronic conditions.
    • Make sure that the causes are listed in alphabetical order.
    • If the page's disease is itself life-threatening, do not add causes in the life-threatening causes section. Instead, confirm the presence of the following sentence under the subheading: Disease name is a life-threatening condition and must be treated as such irrespective of the causes. Life-threatening conditions may result in death or permanent disability within 24 hours if left untreated.
  • Under the subheading “Common Causes” make sure that the causes are listed in alphabetical order.
  • Under the subheading “Causes by Organ system”:
    • Confirm the presence of the differential diagnosis table.
    • Make sure that the causes listed in each row are separated by a coma followed by a space.
    • Make sure that the causes are listed in alphabetical order.
    • Make sure that only the first letter of the first word listed in each row is capitalized, the other causes should not be capitalized unless they refer to a proper noun, e.g “Hodgkin lymphoma” and not “hodgkin lymphoma”.
    • Make sure that each cause fits in the appropriate organ system.
  • Under the subheading “Causes in Alphabetical order”, make sure the list of causes is arranged in multiple columns.

References

Categories

  • Confirm the absence of the following categories once the page is complete:
    • [[Category:Needs causes]]
    • [[Category:Needs content]]
  • Confirm the presence of following categories once the page is complete:
    • [[Category:Signs and symptoms]]
    • [[Category:Up-To-Date]]

Database

  • When you are done, put all the causes and risk factors in separate excel spreadsheets and send them to Dr. Gibson.[7]
  • Fill in the authorship and date in this page.

References


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