Hemorrhoids natural history, complications and prognosis
Hemorrhoids natural history, complications and prognosis On the Web
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If left untreated, hemorrhoids may lead to strangulation, anemia, or fecal incontinence. Common complications of hemorrhoids include secondary infection, thrombosis, or strangulation. Prognosis is generally excellent and most cases respond to non surgical treatment. However, surgery gives the best prognosis with the least recurrence rate.
Natural History, Complications and Prognosis
- If left untreated, hemorrhoids may lead to strangulation, thrombosis, or infection.
- The main reasons for a delay in seeking medical advice are as follows:
Most common complications
- Strangualtion: The prolapsed hemorrhoids can be trapped outside the anal canal if the anal sphincter goes into spasm. This can lead to thrombosis of the hemorrhoids or cutting of the blood supply to the hemorrhoids
- Secondary infection and abscess formation
- Hemorrhoid thrombosis
Less common complications
Complications due to surgery
- The prognosis is excellent.
- Most cases respond well to non surgical procedures such as rubber band ligation (recurrence rate is 30-50% after 5 years); however, the recurrence rate is much less with surgical hemorrhoidectomy (2-5% after 5 years).
- The difference in recurrence rate is more pronounced with grade III hemorrhoids.
- Guttenplan M (2017). "The Evaluation and Office Management of Hemorrhoids for the Gastroenterologist". Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 19 (7): 30. PMID 28567655. doi:10.1007/s11894-017-0574-9.
- Jayaraman S, Colquhoun PH, Malthaner RA (2007). "Stapled hemorrhoidopexy is associated with a higher long-term recurrence rate of internal hemorrhoids compared with conventional excisional hemorrhoid surgery". Dis. Colon Rectum. 50 (9): 1297–305. PMID 17665254. doi:10.1007/s10350-007-0308-4.
- Shanmugam V, Thaha MA, Rabindranath KS, Campbell KL, Steele RJ, Loudon MA (2005). "Rubber band ligation versus excisional haemorrhoidectomy for haemorrhoids". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (3): CD005034. PMID 16034963. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005034.pub2.