Alzheimer's disease other imaging findings

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]

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Key Findings in SPECT and PET in Alzheimer's disease

The functional neuroimaging modalities of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) may also be used in the diagnosis Alzheimer's.[1] In some cases, the ability of SPECT to differentiate Alzheimer's disease from other possible causes in a patient already known to be suffering from dementia may be superior to attempts to differentiate the cause of dementia cause by mental testing and history.[2] A new technique known as "PiB PET" has been developed for directly and clearly imaging beta-amyloid deposits in vivo using a contrasting tracer that binds selectively to the Abeta deposits.[3][4][5] Another recent objective marker of the disease is the analysis of cerebrospinal fluid for amyloid beta or tau proteins.[6] Both advances (neuroimaging and cerebrospinal fluid analysis) have led to the proposal of new diagnostic criteria.[7][8]

References

  1. Bonte FJ, Harris TS, Hynan LS, Bigio EH, White CL (2006). "Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT in the differential diagnosis of the dementias with histopathologic confirmation". Clinical nuclear medicine. 31 (7): 376–378. doi:10.1097/01.rlu.0000222736.81365.63. PMID 16785801.
  2. Dougall NJ, Bruggink S, Ebmeier KP (2004). "Systematic review of the diagnostic accuracy of 99mTc-HMPAO-SPECT in dementia". American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 12 (6): 554–570. doi:10.1176/appi.ajgp.12.6.554. PMID 15545324.
  3. Kemppainen NM, Aalto S, Karrasch M, Någren K, Savisto N, Oikonen V, Viitanen M, Parkkola R, Rinne JO (2008). "Cognitive reserve hypothesis: Pittsburgh Compound B and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in relation to education in mild Alzheimer's disease". Ann. Neurol. 63 (1): 112–8. doi:10.1002/ana.21212. PMID 18023012.
  4. Ikonomovic MD, Klunk WE, Abrahamson EE, Mathis CA, Price JC, Tsopelas ND, Lopresti BJ, Ziolko S, Bi W, Paljug WR, Debnath ML, Hope CE, Isanski BA, Hamilton RL, Dekosky ST (March 2008). "Post-mortem correlates of in vivo PiB-PET amyloid imaging in a typical case of Alzheimer's disease". Brain. doi:doi:10.1093/brain/awn016 Check |doi= value (help). PMID 18339640.
  5. Jack CR, Lowe VJ, Senjem ML; et al. (2008). "11C PiB and structural MRI provide complementary information in imaging of Alzheimer's disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment". Brain. 131 (Pt 3): 665–80. doi:10.1093/brain/awm336. PMID 18263627.
  6. Marksteiner J, Hinterhuber H, Humpel C (2007). "Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: beta-amyloid(1-42), tau, phospho-tau-181 and total protein". Drugs Today. 43 (6): 423–431. doi:10.1358/dot.2007.43.6.1067341. PMID 17612711.
  7. Dubois B, Feldman HH, Jacova C, Dekosky ST, Barberger-Gateau P, Cummings J, Delacourte A, Galasko D, Gauthier S, Jicha G, Meguro K, O'brien J, Pasquier F, Robert P, Rossor M, Salloway S, Stern Y, Visser PJ, Scheltens P (2007). "Research criteria for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: revising the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria". Lancet Neurology. 6 (8): 734–746. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(07)70178-3. PMID 17616482.
  8. Waldemar G, Dubois B, Emre M, Georges J, McKeith IG, Rossor M, Scheltens P, Tariska P, Winblad B (2007). "Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of Alzheimer's disease and other disorders associated with dementia: EFNS guideline". European Journal of Neurology. 14 (1): e1–26. doi:10.1111/j.1468-1331.2006.01605.x. PMID 17222085.

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