Alzheimer's disease causes

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Syed Hassan A. Kazmi BSc, MD [2]

Overview

Alzheimer's disease may be caused by trisomy of chromosome 21, familial inheritance of mutations in either presenilin 1 gene, presenilin 2 gene or APOE4 gene. Presenilin mutations are associated with early onset Alzheimer's disease, whereas APOE mutations are associated with late onset disease. Environmental factors, such as aging, low level of education and head trauma may also contribute to the development of Alzheimer's disease.

Causes

The following are the causes of Alzheimer's dementia (AD):[1][2][3][4][5]

Cause Specific characteristics Percentage of cases
Chromosomal (Down syndrome) <1%
All familial ~25%
  • Late-onset familial (AD2)
15%-25% of familial cases
  • Early-onset familial AD (AD1, AD3, AD4)
<2% of familial cases
Unknown (includes genetic/environment interactions) ~75%

References

  1. "Alzheimer Disease Overview - GeneReviews® - NCBI Bookshelf".
  2. Brickell KL, Steinbart EJ, Rumbaugh M, Payami H, Schellenberg GD, Van Deerlin V, Yuan W, Bird TD (2006). "Early-onset Alzheimer disease in families with late-onset Alzheimer disease: a potential important subtype of familial Alzheimer disease". Arch. Neurol. 63 (9): 1307–11. doi:10.1001/archneur.63.9.1307. PMID 16966510.
  3. Campion D, Dumanchin C, Hannequin D, Dubois B, Belliard S, Puel M, Thomas-Anterion C, Michon A, Martin C, Charbonnier F, Raux G, Camuzat A, Penet C, Mesnage V, Martinez M, Clerget-Darpoux F, Brice A, Frebourg T (1999). "Early-onset autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease: prevalence, genetic heterogeneity, and mutation spectrum". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 65 (3): 664–70. doi:10.1086/302553. PMC 1377972. PMID 10441572.
  4. Munoz DG, Feldman H (2000). "Causes of Alzheimer's disease". CMAJ. 162 (1): 65–72. PMC 1232234. PMID 11216203.
  5. Hölscher C (1998). "Possible causes of Alzheimer's disease: amyloid fragments, free radicals, and calcium homeostasis". Neurobiol. Dis. 5 (3): 129–41. doi:10.1006/nbdi.1998.0193. PMID 9848086.

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