Acute promyelocytic leukemia epidemiology and demographics

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Shyam Patel [2] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Sogand Goudarzi, MD; Grammar Reviewer: Natalie Harpenau, B.S.[3]

Overview

Acute promyelocytic leukemia is relatively rare compared to other diseases. It predominantly affects people of Latin American descent and least commonly affects African Americans. It is more common in older adults.

Epidemiology

Incidence

  • Acute promyelocytic leukemia represents 10-15%% of all cases of acute myeloid leukemia in adults.[1]
  • Acute promyelocytic leukemia affects approximately 1,500 people per year in the United States.[2]
  • The incidence of acute promyelocytic leukemia is 0.2 to 0.26 per 100,000 annually in the United States, which corresponds to 600-800 cases of acute promyelocytic leukemia per year.[3]
  • The incidence in Caucasians is 0.18 per 100,000. The incidence is African Americans is 0.14 per 100,000.[3]
  • The incidence in men is 0.19 per 100,000, while the incidence in women is 0.17 per year.[3]
  • The incidence of acute promyelocytic leukemia in people above age 60 is 0.36 per 100,000.
  • The incidence in people under age 20 is 0.06 per 100,000.
  • The incidence of acute promyelocytic leukemia has increased over time from 1975-2008.[3]

Demographics

Race

  • Caucasians are more commonly affected by acute promyelocytic leukemia than African Americans.
  • Asians and Pacific islanders are more commonly affected by acute promyelocytic leukemia than African Americans.[3]
  • The incidence is higher in people of Latin American descent compared to Caucasian descent.[3]

Gender

  • Men are more commonly affected by acute promyelocytic leukemia than women.

Age

  • Older patients are more likely to develop acute promyelocytic leukemia than younger patients.
  • The median age is approximately 40 years, which is considerably younger than the other sub-types of acute myeloid leukemia (70 years).

References

  1. Chen C, Huang X, Wang K, Chen K, Gao D, Qian S (2018). "Early mortality in acute promyelocytic leukemia: Potential predictors". Oncol Lett. 15 (4): 4061–4069. doi:10.3892/ol.2018.7854. PMC 5835847. PMID 29541170.
  2. Kumar S, Yedjou CG, Tchounwou PB (2014). "Arsenic trioxide induces oxidative stress, DNA damage, and mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis in human leukemia (HL-60) cells". J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 33: 42. doi:10.1186/1756-9966-33-42. PMC 4049373. PMID 24887205.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 Chen Y, Kantarjian H, Wang H, Cortes J, Ravandi F (2012). "Acute promyelocytic leukemia: a population-based study on incidence and survival in the United States, 1975-2008". Cancer. 118 (23): 5811–8. doi:10.1002/cncr.27623. PMC 4180246. PMID 22707337.

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