Acute lymphoblastic leukemia physical examination

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Raviteja Guddeti, M.B.B.S. [2] Carlos A Lopez, M.D. [3]

Overview

Common physical examination findings of acute lymphoblastic leukemia include lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, stridor, splenomegaly, pallor, petechiae, bruising, papilledema, nuchar rigidity, cranial nerve palsy and testicular enlargement among males.

Physical Examination

Physical examination findings of acute lymphoblastic leukemia include the following:[1][2][3][4]

General Appearance

  • Patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia usually appear weak and malnourished.

Vital Signs

Skin

HEENT

  • HEENT examination of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia is usually normal.

Neck

Lungs

Heart

  • Cardiovascular examination of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia is usually normal.

Abdomen

Back

  • Back examination of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia is usually normal.

Neurological examination

Genitourinary

References

  1. Del Principe MI, Maurillo L, Buccisano F, Sconocchia G, Cefalo M, De Santis G, Di Veroli A, Ditto C, Nasso D, Postorino M, Refrigeri M, Attrotto C, Del Poeta G, Lo-Coco F, Amadori S, Venditti A (2014). "Central nervous system involvement in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia: diagnostic tools, prophylaxis, and therapy". Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis. 6 (1): e2014075. doi:10.4084/MJHID.2014.075. PMC 4235468. PMID 25408861.
  2. Villarreal-Martínez L, Jaime-Pérez JC, Rodríguez-Martínez M, González-Llano O, Gómez-Almaguer D (2012). "Acute lymphoblastic leukemia of childhood presenting as aplastic anemia: report of two cases". Rev Bras Hematol Hemoter. 34 (2): 165–7. doi:10.5581/1516-8484.20120037. PMC 3459388. PMID 23049407.
  3. Ruth A, Sabio H, McLean TW, Manavi C, Palavecino EL, Shetty AK (2009). "Skin nodules in a 16-year-old adolescent with acute lymphoblastic leukemia". Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol. 20 (1): e8–9. PMC 2690524. PMID 20190885.
  4. Peng LH, Keng TC, Sinniah D (February 1981). "Fever in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia". Cancer. 47 (3): 583–7. PMID 6939473.
  5. Koffeman, E. C.; Wulffraat, N. M.; Bruin, M.; Hogeman, P. H. G.; Frenkel, J. (2005). "Periodic fever as a presenting sign of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia". Rheumatology. 44 (12): 1583–1584. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/kei089. ISSN 1462-0332.
  6. Nesheli HM, Moghaddam TG, Zahedpasha Y, Norouzi AR (2011). "Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia with Eosinophilia and Strongyloides stercoralis Hyperinfection". Iran J Pediatr. 21 (4): 549–52. PMC 3446142. PMID 23056848.
  7. Saha, A; Arora, N; Bobbity, D; Mandal, P (2019). "Acute lymphoblastic leukemia presenting with isolated nephromegaly". Indian Journal of Nephrology. 0 (0): 0. doi:10.4103/ijn.IJN_145_18. ISSN 0971-4065.
  8. Guo D, Chen D, Chen B (2018). "Acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a patient with IgG4-related disease". Pharmazie. 73 (7): 418–421. doi:10.1691/ph.2018.8416. PMID 30001778.
  9. Barbosa TC, Lopes BA, Blunck CB, Mansur MB, Deyl AVS, Emerenciano M; et al. (2018). "A novel PAX5 rearrangement in TCF3-PBX1 acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a case report". BMC Med Genomics. 11 (1): 122. doi:10.1186/s12920-018-0444-9. PMC 6299517. PMID 30563523.
  10. Mayo GL, Carter JE, McKinnon SJ (2002). "Bilateral optic disk edema and blindness as initial presentation of acute lymphocytic leukemia". Am J Ophthalmol. 134 (1): 141–2. PMID 12095830.

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