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== Overview ==
 
== Overview ==
"The word “menopause” derives from the Greek “men” (month or monthly cycle) and “pausis” (end, stop)".<ref>https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5558404/#:~:text=Studies%20have%20shown%20many%20factors,activity%2C%20unilateral%20oophorectomy%2C%20serum%20lead</ref>Menopause is the permanent cessation of the menstrual cycle in women without any pathological causes because of physiological deficiency production of estrogen hormone in women."It occurs at an average age of 52 years, but the age of natural menopause can vary widely from 40 to 58 years".<ref>http://www.menopause.org/docs/default-source/2014/nams-recomm-for-clinical-care.pdf</ref> it is considered a natural end to fertility in women. Menopause is a date: the day after a woman's last period ever finishes. In common everyday parlance, however, the word "menopause" is usually not used to refer to one day, but the whole of the menopause transition years. This period time is also referred to as the change of life or the climacteric, "we should consider that 'menopause' is referring to a specific event, the cessation of menses, and 'climacteric' to gradual changes of ovarian function that start before the menopause and continue thereafter for a while".<ref name="pmid23998690">{{cite journal| author=Blümel JE, Lavín P, Vallejo MS, Sarrá S| title=Menopause or climacteric, just a semantic discussion or has it clinical implications? | journal=Climacteric | year= 2014 | volume= 17 | issue= 3 | pages= 235-41 | pmid=23998690 | doi=10.3109/13697137.2013.838948 | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=23998690  }} </ref> And more recently is known as "perimenopause", (literally meaning "around menopause"). A woman is considered in menopause after amenorrhea for 12 months and she becomes suffering from the menopausal symptoms whose intensity varies from woman to another.<ref>Women to Women. (2011). Understanding what menopause is. Retrieved from http://www.womentowomen.com/menopause/postmenopausal.aspx/</ref> "There are health problems related to menopause due to deficiency of estrogen, hormonal imbalance, and changes in body composition. These changes lead to alterations in energy levels, memory, bone health, hormones, and heart health".<ref> Women's Health Concern. (2009).Focus on… Diet, nutrition, and menopause. Retrieved from http://www.womens-health-concern.org/help/focuson/focus_dietmenopause.html/</ref> " Women in post-menopause are at an increased risk of diseases such as osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, overweight"<big>.<ref> Jean Hailes for Women's Health. (2012). Understanding what menopause is. Retrieved from http://www.managingmenopause.org.au/images/stories/Education/Documents/info/nutritional_tips.pdf/</ref></big>Clinically, "Menopause does not happen all at once", but it passes through stages until it reaches the permanent cessation of the menstrual cycle. It is classified as physiological menopause, Premature Menopause/Early menopause, and surgical menopause. Menopause is natural amenorrhea that is happened without any pathological causes, but premature menopause caused by pathological diseases, that are lead to early cessation of menses. Menopause occurs naturally or can be induced, Induced menopause happens as a result of bilateral [[oophorectomy]], [[hysterectomy]], [[salpingo-oophorectomy]], a complication of [[tubal ligation]], complications of treatment, such as [[chemotherapy]] and [[radiotherapy]], [[autoimmune diseases]] such as [[Thyroid diseases|thyroid disease]], [[rheumatoid arthritis]], Turner’s syndrome, myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome, [[polycystic ovary syndrome]], premature ovarian insufficiency. Several risk factors accelerate happen early menopause such as undiagnosed and untreated coeliac disease, family history and Cigarette smoking has been found to decrease the age at menopause by as much as one year and women who smoke have early menopause before non-smoking women.<ref>https://www.womenshealth.gov/menopause/early-or-premature-menopause</ref><ref>https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Menopause#Causes</ref>. [[Menopause]] should be differentiated from other [[diseases]] presenting with [[menstrual irregularities]] ([[oligomenorrhea]]/[[amenorrhea]]).<ref name="pmid9541295">{{cite journal |vauthors=Sato N, Sze G, Endo K |title=Hypophysitis: endocrinologic and dynamic MR findings |journal=AJNR Am J Neuroradiol |volume=19 |issue=3 |pages=439–44 |year=1998 |pmid=9541295 |doi= |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid7758238">{{cite journal |vauthors=Powrie JK, Powell M, Ayers AB, Lowy C, Sönksen PH |title=Lymphocytic adenohypophysitis: magnetic resonance imaging features of two new cases and a review of the literature |journal=Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf) |volume=42 |issue=3 |pages=315–22 |year=1995 |pmid=7758238 |doi= |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid26262437">{{cite journal |vauthors=Honegger J, Schlaffer S, Menzel C, Droste M, Werner S, Elbelt U, Strasburger C, Störmann S, Küppers A, Streetz-van der Werf C, Deutschbein T, Stieg M, Rotermund R, Milian M, Petersenn S |title=Diagnosis of Primary Hypophysitis in Germany |journal=J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. |volume=100 |issue=10 |pages=3841–9 |year=2015 |pmid=26262437 |doi=10.1210/jc.2015-2152 |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid7629223">{{cite journal |vauthors=Thodou E, Asa SL, Kontogeorgos G, Kovacs K, Horvath E, Ezzat S |title=Clinical case seminar: lymphocytic hypophysitis: clinicopathological findings |journal=J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. |volume=80 |issue=8 |pages=2302–11 |year=1995 |pmid=7629223 |doi=10.1210/jcem.80.8.7629223 |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid8345854">{{cite journal |vauthors=Imura H, Nakao K, Shimatsu A, Ogawa Y, Sando T, Fujisawa I, Yamabe H |title=Lymphocytic infundibuloneurohypophysitis as a cause of central diabetes insipidus |journal=N. Engl. J. Med. |volume=329 |issue=10 |pages=683–9 |year=1993 |pmid=8345854 |doi=10.1056/NEJM199309023291002 |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid21668725">{{cite journal |vauthors=Hsieh CY, Liu BY, Yang YN, Yin WH, Young MS |title=Massive pericardial effusion with diastolic right ventricular compression secondary to hypothyroidism in a 73-year-old woman |journal=Emerg Med Australas |volume=23 |issue=3 |pages=372–5 |year=2011 |pmid=21668725 |doi=10.1111/j.1742-6723.2011.01425.x |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid9747750">{{cite journal |vauthors=Dejager S, Gerber S, Foubert L, Turpin G |title=Sheehan's syndrome: differential diagnosis in the acute phase |journal=J. Intern. Med. |volume=244 |issue=3 |pages=261–6 |year=1998 |pmid=9747750 |doi= |url=}}</ref>
+
"The word “menopause” derives from the Greek “men” (month or monthly cycle) and “pausis” (end, stop)".<ref>https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5558404/#:~:text=Studies%20have%20shown%20many%20factors,activity%2C%20unilateral%20oophorectomy%2C%20serum%20lead</ref>Menopause is the permanent cessation of the menstrual cycle in women without any pathological causes because of physiological deficiency production of estrogen hormone in women."It occurs at an average age of 52 years, but the age of natural menopause can vary widely from 40 to 58 years".<ref>http://www.menopause.org/docs/default-source/2014/nams-recomm-for-clinical-care.pdf</ref> it is considered a natural end to fertility in women. Menopause is a date: the day after a woman's last period ever finishes. In common everyday parlance, however, the word "menopause" is usually not used to refer to one day, but the whole of the menopause transition years. This period time is also referred to as the change of life or the climacteric, "we should consider that 'menopause' is referring to a specific event, the cessation of menses, and 'climacteric' to gradual changes of ovarian function that start before the menopause and continue thereafter for a while".<ref name="pmid23998690">{{cite journal| author=Blümel JE, Lavín P, Vallejo MS, Sarrá S| title=Menopause or climacteric, just a semantic discussion or has it clinical implications? | journal=Climacteric | year= 2014 | volume= 17 | issue= 3 | pages= 235-41 | pmid=23998690 | doi=10.3109/13697137.2013.838948 | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=23998690  }} </ref> And more recently is known as "perimenopause", (literally meaning "around menopause"). A woman is considered in menopause after amenorrhea for 12 months and she becomes suffering from the menopausal symptoms whose intensity varies from woman to another.<ref>Women to Women. (2011). Understanding what menopause is. Retrieved from http://www.womentowomen.com/menopause/postmenopausal.aspx/</ref> "There are health problems related to menopause due to deficiency of estrogen, hormonal imbalance, and changes in body composition. These changes lead to alterations in energy levels, memory, bone health, hormones, and heart health".<ref> Women's Health Concern. (2009).Focus on… Diet, nutrition, and menopause. Retrieved from http://www.womens-health-concern.org/help/focuson/focus_dietmenopause.html/</ref> " Women in post-menopause are at an increased risk of diseases such as osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, overweight"<big>.<ref> Jean Hailes for Women's Health. (2012). Understanding what menopause is. Retrieved from http://www.managingmenopause.org.au/images/stories/Education/Documents/info/nutritional_tips.pdf/</ref></big>Clinically, "Menopause does not happen all at once", but it passes through stages until it reaches the permanent cessation of the menstrual cycle. It is classified as physiological menopause, Premature Menopause/Early menopause, and surgical menopause. Menopause is natural amenorrhea that is happened without any pathological causes, but premature menopause caused by pathological diseases, that are lead to early cessation of menses. Menopause occurs naturally or can be induced, Induced menopause happens as a result of bilateral [[oophorectomy]], [[hysterectomy]], [[salpingo-oophorectomy]], a complication of [[tubal ligation]], complications of treatment, such as [[chemotherapy]] and [[radiotherapy]], [[autoimmune diseases]] such as [[Thyroid diseases|thyroid disease]], [[rheumatoid arthritis]], Turner’s syndrome, myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome, [[polycystic ovary syndrome]], premature ovarian insufficiency. Several risk factors accelerate happen early menopause such as undiagnosed and untreated coeliac disease, family history and Cigarette smoking has been found to decrease the age at menopause by as much as one year and women who smoke have early menopause before non-smoking women.<ref>https://www.womenshealth.gov/menopause/early-or-premature-menopause</ref><ref>https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Menopause#Causes</ref>. [[Menopause]] should be differentiated from other [[diseases]] presenting with [[menstrual irregularities]] ([[oligomenorrhea]]/[[amenorrhea]]).<ref name="pmid9541295">{{cite journal |vauthors=Sato N, Sze G, Endo K |title=Hypophysitis: endocrinologic and dynamic MR findings |journal=AJNR Am J Neuroradiol |volume=19 |issue=3 |pages=439–44 |year=1998 |pmid=9541295 |doi= |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid7758238">{{cite journal |vauthors=Powrie JK, Powell M, Ayers AB, Lowy C, Sönksen PH |title=Lymphocytic adenohypophysitis: magnetic resonance imaging features of two new cases and a review of the literature |journal=Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf) |volume=42 |issue=3 |pages=315–22 |year=1995 |pmid=7758238 |doi= |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid26262437">{{cite journal |vauthors=Honegger J, Schlaffer S, Menzel C, Droste M, Werner S, Elbelt U, Strasburger C, Störmann S, Küppers A, Streetz-van der Werf C, Deutschbein T, Stieg M, Rotermund R, Milian M, Petersenn S |title=Diagnosis of Primary Hypophysitis in Germany |journal=J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. |volume=100 |issue=10 |pages=3841–9 |year=2015 |pmid=26262437 |doi=10.1210/jc.2015-2152 |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid7629223">{{cite journal |vauthors=Thodou E, Asa SL, Kontogeorgos G, Kovacs K, Horvath E, Ezzat S |title=Clinical case seminar: lymphocytic hypophysitis: clinicopathological findings |journal=J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. |volume=80 |issue=8 |pages=2302–11 |year=1995 |pmid=7629223 |doi=10.1210/jcem.80.8.7629223 |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid8345854">{{cite journal |vauthors=Imura H, Nakao K, Shimatsu A, Ogawa Y, Sando T, Fujisawa I, Yamabe H |title=Lymphocytic infundibuloneurohypophysitis as a cause of central diabetes insipidus |journal=N. Engl. J. Med. |volume=329 |issue=10 |pages=683–9 |year=1993 |pmid=8345854 |doi=10.1056/NEJM199309023291002 |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid21668725">{{cite journal |vauthors=Hsieh CY, Liu BY, Yang YN, Yin WH, Young MS |title=Massive pericardial effusion with diastolic right ventricular compression secondary to hypothyroidism in a 73-year-old woman |journal=Emerg Med Australas |volume=23 |issue=3 |pages=372–5 |year=2011 |pmid=21668725 |doi=10.1111/j.1742-6723.2011.01425.x |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid9747750">{{cite journal |vauthors=Dejager S, Gerber S, Foubert L, Turpin G |title=Sheehan's syndrome: differential diagnosis in the acute phase |journal=J. Intern. Med. |volume=244 |issue=3 |pages=261–6 |year=1998 |pmid=9747750 |doi= |url=}}</ref>. Menopause is typically beginning between the ages of 51 and 52, age at menopause is also higher in the West as compared to the range of 45-47 years in developing countries. About 25 million women pass through menopause each year, In the United States, approximately 1.3 million women become menopausal each year. By 2030, the world population of menopausal and postmenopausal women is projected to increase to 1.2 billion."Symptomatically of menopause differs in different areas of the world e.g In West - hot flush, in Japan shoulder pain and India low vision are the hallmarks of menopause. HRT use rate is high in the West while it is low or negligible in countries like India".85 % of postmenopausal women have experienced a menopause-related symptom in their lifetime, 15% increased the risk of causes mortality among women at an early age at menopause. The ethnic differences in the symptoms experienced during the menopausal transition were noted. Asian women had experienced the smallest number of menopausal symptoms compared with all other ethnic groups, but African American women had experienced the largest number of menopausal symptoms compared with other ethnic groups.The symptoms of menopause typically develop in the menopausal transition years. Left untreated women, 15% increased the risk of causes mortality among women with menopausal symptoms after approximately 7.4 years on average, women may progress to develop hypertension, atherosclerosis, and hyperlipidemia. Common complications of menopause include Cardiovascular Disease/chronic heart disease, stroke, Osteoporosis.
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Generally, the prognosis of menopause is good with treatment and a healthy lifestyle include stop smoking, a healthy diet, and exercise. In the late post-menopause stage, most menopausal symptoms relieved in most women. but untreated menopausal symptoms are poor prognosis in women which have high-risk factors to develop of complications that are associated with menopause.<ref>https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK507826/</ref><ref>https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Menopause#Long-term_effects</ref>
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Revision as of 18:44, 2 August 2020

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Editor-In-Chief: Rahmah Al-Edresi, M.D.

Overview

"The word “menopause” derives from the Greek “men” (month or monthly cycle) and “pausis” (end, stop)".[1]Menopause is the permanent cessation of the menstrual cycle in women without any pathological causes because of physiological deficiency production of estrogen hormone in women."It occurs at an average age of 52 years, but the age of natural menopause can vary widely from 40 to 58 years".[2] it is considered a natural end to fertility in women. Menopause is a date: the day after a woman's last period ever finishes. In common everyday parlance, however, the word "menopause" is usually not used to refer to one day, but the whole of the menopause transition years. This period time is also referred to as the change of life or the climacteric, "we should consider that 'menopause' is referring to a specific event, the cessation of menses, and 'climacteric' to gradual changes of ovarian function that start before the menopause and continue thereafter for a while".[3] And more recently is known as "perimenopause", (literally meaning "around menopause"). A woman is considered in menopause after amenorrhea for 12 months and she becomes suffering from the menopausal symptoms whose intensity varies from woman to another.[4] "There are health problems related to menopause due to deficiency of estrogen, hormonal imbalance, and changes in body composition. These changes lead to alterations in energy levels, memory, bone health, hormones, and heart health".[5] " Women in post-menopause are at an increased risk of diseases such as osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, overweight".[6]Clinically, "Menopause does not happen all at once", but it passes through stages until it reaches the permanent cessation of the menstrual cycle. It is classified as physiological menopause, Premature Menopause/Early menopause, and surgical menopause. Menopause is natural amenorrhea that is happened without any pathological causes, but premature menopause caused by pathological diseases, that are lead to early cessation of menses. Menopause occurs naturally or can be induced, Induced menopause happens as a result of bilateral oophorectomy, hysterectomy, salpingo-oophorectomy, a complication of tubal ligation, complications of treatment, such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy, autoimmune diseases such as thyroid disease, rheumatoid arthritis, Turner’s syndrome, myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome, polycystic ovary syndrome, premature ovarian insufficiency. Several risk factors accelerate happen early menopause such as undiagnosed and untreated coeliac disease, family history and Cigarette smoking has been found to decrease the age at menopause by as much as one year and women who smoke have early menopause before non-smoking women.[7][8]. Menopause should be differentiated from other diseases presenting with menstrual irregularities (oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea).[9][10][11][12][13][14][15]. Menopause is typically beginning between the ages of 51 and 52, age at menopause is also higher in the West as compared to the range of 45-47 years in developing countries. About 25 million women pass through menopause each year, In the United States, approximately 1.3 million women become menopausal each year. By 2030, the world population of menopausal and postmenopausal women is projected to increase to 1.2 billion."Symptomatically of menopause differs in different areas of the world e.g In West - hot flush, in Japan shoulder pain and India low vision are the hallmarks of menopause. HRT use rate is high in the West while it is low or negligible in countries like India".85 % of postmenopausal women have experienced a menopause-related symptom in their lifetime, 15% increased the risk of causes mortality among women at an early age at menopause. The ethnic differences in the symptoms experienced during the menopausal transition were noted. Asian women had experienced the smallest number of menopausal symptoms compared with all other ethnic groups, but African American women had experienced the largest number of menopausal symptoms compared with other ethnic groups.The symptoms of menopause typically develop in the menopausal transition years. Left untreated women, 15% increased the risk of causes mortality among women with menopausal symptoms after approximately 7.4 years on average, women may progress to develop hypertension, atherosclerosis, and hyperlipidemia. Common complications of menopause include Cardiovascular Disease/chronic heart disease, stroke, Osteoporosis. Generally, the prognosis of menopause is good with treatment and a healthy lifestyle include stop smoking, a healthy diet, and exercise. In the late post-menopause stage, most menopausal symptoms relieved in most women. but untreated menopausal symptoms are poor prognosis in women which have high-risk factors to develop of complications that are associated with menopause.[16][17]









References

  1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5558404/#:~:text=Studies%20have%20shown%20many%20factors,activity%2C%20unilateral%20oophorectomy%2C%20serum%20lead
  2. http://www.menopause.org/docs/default-source/2014/nams-recomm-for-clinical-care.pdf
  3. Blümel JE, Lavín P, Vallejo MS, Sarrá S (2014). "Menopause or climacteric, just a semantic discussion or has it clinical implications?". Climacteric. 17 (3): 235–41. doi:10.3109/13697137.2013.838948. PMID 23998690.
  4. Women to Women. (2011). Understanding what menopause is. Retrieved from http://www.womentowomen.com/menopause/postmenopausal.aspx/
  5. Women's Health Concern. (2009).Focus on… Diet, nutrition, and menopause. Retrieved from http://www.womens-health-concern.org/help/focuson/focus_dietmenopause.html/
  6. Jean Hailes for Women's Health. (2012). Understanding what menopause is. Retrieved from http://www.managingmenopause.org.au/images/stories/Education/Documents/info/nutritional_tips.pdf/
  7. https://www.womenshealth.gov/menopause/early-or-premature-menopause
  8. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Menopause#Causes
  9. Sato N, Sze G, Endo K (1998). "Hypophysitis: endocrinologic and dynamic MR findings". AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 19 (3): 439–44. PMID 9541295.
  10. Powrie JK, Powell M, Ayers AB, Lowy C, Sönksen PH (1995). "Lymphocytic adenohypophysitis: magnetic resonance imaging features of two new cases and a review of the literature". Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf). 42 (3): 315–22. PMID 7758238.
  11. Honegger J, Schlaffer S, Menzel C, Droste M, Werner S, Elbelt U, Strasburger C, Störmann S, Küppers A, Streetz-van der Werf C, Deutschbein T, Stieg M, Rotermund R, Milian M, Petersenn S (2015). "Diagnosis of Primary Hypophysitis in Germany". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 100 (10): 3841–9. doi:10.1210/jc.2015-2152. PMID 26262437.
  12. Thodou E, Asa SL, Kontogeorgos G, Kovacs K, Horvath E, Ezzat S (1995). "Clinical case seminar: lymphocytic hypophysitis: clinicopathological findings". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 80 (8): 2302–11. doi:10.1210/jcem.80.8.7629223. PMID 7629223.
  13. Imura H, Nakao K, Shimatsu A, Ogawa Y, Sando T, Fujisawa I, Yamabe H (1993). "Lymphocytic infundibuloneurohypophysitis as a cause of central diabetes insipidus". N. Engl. J. Med. 329 (10): 683–9. doi:10.1056/NEJM199309023291002. PMID 8345854.
  14. Hsieh CY, Liu BY, Yang YN, Yin WH, Young MS (2011). "Massive pericardial effusion with diastolic right ventricular compression secondary to hypothyroidism in a 73-year-old woman". Emerg Med Australas. 23 (3): 372–5. doi:10.1111/j.1742-6723.2011.01425.x. PMID 21668725.
  15. Dejager S, Gerber S, Foubert L, Turpin G (1998). "Sheehan's syndrome: differential diagnosis in the acute phase". J. Intern. Med. 244 (3): 261–6. PMID 9747750.
  16. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK507826/
  17. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Menopause#Long-term_effects