Confusion other imaging findings

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Confusion Microchapters


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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] ; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Aditya Govindavarjhulla, M.B.B.S. [2]


There are several other imaging studies that are not used as often for diagnosis. They are mostly used in cases of an unconfirmed diagnosis. Examples of these tests include CT angiography and FLAIR (Fluid attenuated inversion recovery images).

Other Imaging Findings

  • Angiography of cerebral vessels can be useful in cases of recurrent episodes of confusion caused by cerebral vasculitis. Evidence of vessel inflammation is important to start on therapy. Seromarkers for inflammation are also evaluated in such cases.
  • It can be used along with a CT scan for better understanding. It is referred to as CT angiography.
  • Fluid attenuated inversion recovery images (FLAIR) are more sensitive to brain lesions that cause confusion.[1]


  1. Weier K, Fluri F, Kos S, Gass A (2009). "Postcontrast flair MRI demonstrates blood-brain barrier dysfunction in PRES". Neurology. 72 (8): 760–2. doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000343007.39226.aa. PMID 19237706. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)

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