Cerebral palsy causes

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Cerebral palsy Microchapters

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Aditya Ganti M.B.B.S. [2]

Overview

Birth asphyxia is believed to be the principal etiology for cerebral palsy. However, recent studies demonstrated that 70% to 80% of cases of cerebral palsy are due to antenatal factors, while only 10% to 28% of cases are due to birth asphyxia in term and near-term infants. Causes of cerebral palsy are often multifactorial.

Causes

Birth asphyxia is believed to be the principal etiology for cerebral palsy. However, recent studies demonstrated that 70% to 80% of cases of cerebral palsy are due to antenatal factors, while only 10% to 28% of cases are due to birth asphyxia in term and near-term infants. Causes of cerebral palsy are often multifactorial. For example, an intrauterine infection may result in growth restriction, maternal fever, and prematurity, all of which have been associated with cerebral palsy.[1][2][3][4][5][6]

Prenatal causes

Placental pathology

Perinatal causes

Postnatal causes

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cerebral palsy
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Antenatal
 
 
 
 
Perinatal
 
 
 
 
Postnatal
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Prematurity and low birth weight
Intrauterine infections
Multiple gestations
Pregnancy complications
 
 
 
 
Birth asphyxia
complicated labour and delivery
 
 
 
 
Head trauma
Meningitis
Cardio-pulmonary arrest

References

  1. Thorarensen O, Ryan S, Hunter J, Younkin DP (1997). "Factor V Leiden mutation: an unrecognized cause of hemiplegic cerebral palsy, neonatal stroke, and placental thrombosis". Ann. Neurol. 42 (3): 372–5. doi:10.1002/ana.410420316. PMID 9307261.
  2. Jacobsson B, Hagberg G (2004). "Antenatal risk factors for cerebral palsy". Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 18 (3): 425–36. doi:10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2004.02.011. PMID 15183137.
  3. Kuban KC, Leviton A (1994). "Cerebral palsy". N. Engl. J. Med. 330 (3): 188–95. doi:10.1056/NEJM199401203300308. PMID 8264743.
  4. Nelson KB (2003). "Can we prevent cerebral palsy?". N. Engl. J. Med. 349 (18): 1765–9. doi:10.1056/NEJMsb035364. PMID 14585946.
  5. Odding E, Roebroeck ME, Stam HJ (2006). "The epidemiology of cerebral palsy: incidence, impairments and risk factors". Disabil Rehabil. 28 (4): 183–91. doi:10.1080/09638280500158422. PMID 16467053.
  6. Ishii N, Kono Y, Yonemoto N, Kusuda S, Fujimura M (2013). "Outcomes of infants born at 22 and 23 weeks' gestation". Pediatrics. 132 (1): 62–71. doi:10.1542/peds.2012-2857. PMID 23733804.

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