Vaginal cancer risk factors

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Syed Musadiq Ali M.B.B.S.[2]

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The risk factors of vaginal cancer may include vaginal adenosis, cervical cancer, diethylstilbestrol, human papillomavirus infection, HIV infection, unhealthy lifestyle, and age.

Risk factors

Clinical data has suggested that the development of vaginal cancer is related to several factors.

  • Clinical research suggest that having adenosis increases the risk of developing clear cell carcinoma. Although it is very small, many doctors feel that any woman with adenosis should have very careful screening and follow-up[1].
  • HIV infection:
  • Unhealthy lifestyle:
  • Age:
  • Approximately 85 percent of the cases of vaginal cancer occur in women who are over the age of 40, and nearly 50 percent of cases occur in women age 70 or older[7].


  1. Vessey MP (1989). "Epidemiological studies of the effects of diethylstilboestrol". IARC Sci. Publ. (96): 335–48. PMID 2680951.
  2. Jain G, Sabeena S, Vasudeva A, Mundkur A, Srinivas SP, Arunkumar G, Kumar P (December 2018). "A report of human papilloma virus-16 associated vaginal carcinoma after thirty-two years of successful radiation therapy for cervical cancer". Virusdisease. 29 (4): 537–539. doi:10.1007/s13337-018-0479-8. PMID 30539058.
  3. Huo D, Anderson D, Palmer JR, Herbst AL (September 2017). "Incidence rates and risks of diethylstilbestrol-related clear-cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina and cervix: Update after 40-year follow-up". Gynecol. Oncol. 146 (3): 566–571. doi:10.1016/j.ygyno.2017.06.028. PMID 28689666.
  4. Pham T, Bi X, Hoang H, Ishizaki A, Nguyen M, Nguyen CH, Nguyen HP, Pham TV, Ichimura H (November 2018). "Human Papillomavirus Genotypes and HPV16 E6/E7 Variants among Patients with Genital Cancers in Vietnam". Jpn. J. Infect. Dis. 71 (6): 419–426. doi:10.7883/yoken.JJID.2018.206. PMID 29962490. Vancouver style error: initials (help)
  5. Davies O, Rajamanoharan S, Balachandran T (November 2015). "Cervical screening in HIV-positive women in the East of England: recent CD4 as the predictive risk factor". Int J STD AIDS. 26 (13): 945–50. doi:10.1177/0956462414563624. PMID 25505037.
  6. Santoso JT, Crigger M, English E, Wan J, Likes W (June 2012). "Smoking cessation counseling in women with genital intraepithelial neoplasia". Gynecol. Oncol. 125 (3): 716–9. doi:10.1016/j.ygyno.2012.02.018. PMID 22366589.
  7. Strander B, Hällgren J, Sparén P (January 2014). "Effect of ageing on cervical or vaginal cancer in Swedish women previously treated for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3: population based cohort study of long term incidence and mortality". BMJ. 348: f7361. doi:10.1136/bmj.f7361. PMC 3898577. PMID 24423603.