Pyritinol

Jump to: navigation, search
Pyritinol
Pyritinol.png
Clinical data
ATC code
Pharmacokinetic data
Elimination half-life2.5 hours
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEMBL
E number{{#property:P628}}
ECHA InfoCard{{#property:P2566}}Lua error in Module:EditAtWikidata at line 36: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC16H20N2O4S2
Molar mass368.473
3D model (JSmol)
 ☒N☑Y (what is this?)  (verify)

WikiDoc Resources for Pyritinol

Articles

Most recent articles on Pyritinol

Most cited articles on Pyritinol

Review articles on Pyritinol

Articles on Pyritinol in N Eng J Med, Lancet, BMJ

Media

Powerpoint slides on Pyritinol

Images of Pyritinol

Photos of Pyritinol

Podcasts & MP3s on Pyritinol

Videos on Pyritinol

Evidence Based Medicine

Cochrane Collaboration on Pyritinol

Bandolier on Pyritinol

TRIP on Pyritinol

Clinical Trials

Ongoing Trials on Pyritinol at Clinical Trials.gov

Trial results on Pyritinol

Clinical Trials on Pyritinol at Google

Guidelines / Policies / Govt

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse on Pyritinol

NICE Guidance on Pyritinol

NHS PRODIGY Guidance

FDA on Pyritinol

CDC on Pyritinol

Books

Books on Pyritinol

News

Pyritinol in the news

Be alerted to news on Pyritinol

News trends on Pyritinol

Commentary

Blogs on Pyritinol

Definitions

Definitions of Pyritinol

Patient Resources / Community

Patient resources on Pyritinol

Discussion groups on Pyritinol

Patient Handouts on Pyritinol

Directions to Hospitals Treating Pyritinol

Risk calculators and risk factors for Pyritinol

Healthcare Provider Resources

Symptoms of Pyritinol

Causes & Risk Factors for Pyritinol

Diagnostic studies for Pyritinol

Treatment of Pyritinol

Continuing Medical Education (CME)

CME Programs on Pyritinol

International

Pyritinol en Espanol

Pyritinol en Francais

Business

Pyritinol in the Marketplace

Patents on Pyritinol

Experimental / Informatics

List of terms related to Pyritinol

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]

Overview

Pyritinol also called pyridoxine disulfide or pyrithioxine (European drug names Encephabol, Encefabol, Cerbon 6) is a semi-natural water soluble analog of vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine HCl). It was produced in 1961 by Merck Laboratories by bonding 2 vitamin B6 compounds (pyridoxine) together with a disulfide bridge. Since the 1970s, it has been a prescription and OTC drug in several countries for cognitive disorders and learning disorders in children. Since the early 1990s it has been sold as a nootropic dietary supplement in the United States.

It is approved for "symptomatic treatment of chronically impaired brain function in dementia syndromes" and for "supportive treatment of sequelae of craniocerebral trauma" in various European countries, including Austria, Germany, France, Italy, Portugal, and Greece.

In France it is also approved for rheumatoid arthritis as a disease modifying drug, on the basis of the results of clinical trials.

It is not licensed for use in the United Kingdom, but in many countries it is available over the counter and is widely advertised on the internet as being for "memory disturbances." From the known sales data, it is estimated that more than 100 000 individuals in European Union countries have taken pyritinol in the past five years.

One small study, with 12 subjects given pyritinol, showed an improvement in performance on tests of reaction time, but not on memory tests.[1]

Some studies have found large doses of Pyritinol can help to reduce hangovers.[2]

Common dosages are 100-1,600 mg daily, taken in 1-3 doses during the day.

Adverse effects

Adverse effects include nausea, headache, and rarely allergic reaction.[citation needed] A 2004 survey of six case reports suggested a link between pyritinol and severe cholestatic hepatitis when on several drugs for certain diseases.[3]

Other rare side effects: acute pancreatitis[4] and photoallergic eruption.[5]

See also

References

  1. Hindmarch I, Coleston DM, Kerr JS (1990). "Psychopharmacological effects of pyritinol in normal volunteers". Neuropsychobiology. 24 (3): 159–64. doi:10.1159/000119478. PMID 2135070.
  2. Wiese JG, Shlipak MG, Browner WS (June 2000). "The alcohol hangover". Annals of Internal Medicine. 132 (11): 897–902. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-132-11-200006060-00008. PMID 10836917.
  3. Maria V, Albuquerque A, Loureiro A, Sousa A, Victorino R (March 2004). "Severe cholestatic hepatitis induced by pyritinol". BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.). 328 (7439): 572–4. doi:10.1136/bmj.328.7439.572. PMC 381054. PMID 15001508.
  4. Straumann A, Bauer M, Pichler WJ, Pirovino M (August 1998). "Acute pancreatitis due to pyritinol: an immune-mediated phenomenon". Gastroenterology. 115 (2): 452–4. doi:10.1016/S0016-5085(98)70212-4. PMID 9679051.
  5. Tanaka M, Niizeki H, Shimizu S, Miyakawa S (October 1996). "Photoallergic drug eruption due to pyridoxine hydrochloride". The Journal of Dermatology. 23 (10): 708–9. PMID 8973037.



Linked-in.jpg