Psoriatic arthritis risk factors

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Chandrakala Yannam, MD [2]


Genetic factors (eg, increased expression of HLA-B, HLA-C, single nucleotide polymorphisms involving various genes), immune mediators (eg, dendritic cells, T lymphocytes), and environmental agents(eg, infections, physical trauma) may act as a risk factors for the development of psoriatic arthritis.

Risk Factors


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  2. Eder L, Chandran V, Pellet F, Shanmugarajah S, Rosen CF, Bull SB, Gladman DD (January 2012). "Human leucocyte antigen risk alleles for psoriatic arthritis among patients with psoriasis". Ann. Rheum. Dis. 71 (1): 50–5. doi:10.1136/ard.2011.155044. PMID 21900282.
  3. Gladman DD, Cheung C, Ng CM, Wade JA (March 1999). "HLA-C locus alleles in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA)". Hum. Immunol. 60 (3): 259–61. PMID 10321964.
  4. Gladman DD, Farewell VT, Kopciuk KA, Cook RJ (April 1998). "HLA markers and progression in psoriatic arthritis". J. Rheumatol. 25 (4): 730–3. PMID 9558177.
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  6. Rahman P, Bartlett S, Siannis F, Pellett FJ, Farewell VT, Peddle L, Schentag CT, Alderdice CA, Hamilton S, Khraishi M, Tobin Y, Hefferton D, Gladman DD (September 2003). "CARD15: a pleiotropic autoimmune gene that confers susceptibility to psoriatic arthritis". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 73 (3): 677–81. doi:10.1086/378076. PMC 1180694. PMID 12879366.
  7. Filer C, Ho P, Smith RL, Griffiths C, Young HS, Worthington J, Bruce IN, Barton A (December 2008). "Investigation of association of the IL12B and IL23R genes with psoriatic arthritis". Arthritis Rheum. 58 (12): 3705–9. doi:10.1002/art.24128. PMC 3001112. PMID 19035472.
  8. Gonzalez S, Martinez-Borra J, Torre-Alonso JC, Gonzalez-Roces S, Sanchez del Río J, Rodriguez Pérez A, Brautbar C, López-Larrea C (May 1999). "The MICA-A9 triplet repeat polymorphism in the transmembrane region confers additional susceptibility to the development of psoriatic arthritis and is independent of the association of Cw*0602 in psoriasis". Arthritis Rheum. 42 (5): 1010–6. doi:10.1002/1529-0131(199905)42:5<1010::AID-ANR21>3.0.CO;2-H. PMID 10323458.
  9. Williams F, Meenagh A, Sleator C, Cook D, Fernandez-Vina M, Bowcock AM, Middleton D (July 2005). "Activating killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor gene KIR2DS1 is associated with psoriatic arthritis". Hum. Immunol. 66 (7): 836–41. doi:10.1016/j.humimm.2005.04.005. PMID 16112031.
  10. Partsch G, Steiner G, Leeb BF, Dunky A, Bröll H, Smolen JS (March 1997). "Highly increased levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and other proinflammatory cytokines in psoriatic arthritis synovial fluid". J. Rheumatol. 24 (3): 518–23. PMID 9058659.
  11. Szodoray P, Alex P, Chappell-Woodward CM, Madland TM, Knowlton N, Dozmorov I, Zeher M, Jarvis JN, Nakken B, Brun JG, Centola M (March 2007). "Circulating cytokines in Norwegian patients with psoriatic arthritis determined by a multiplex cytokine array system". Rheumatology (Oxford). 46 (3): 417–25. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/kel306. PMID 16936328.
  12. Barnas JL, Ritchlin CT (November 2015). "Etiology and Pathogenesis of Psoriatic Arthritis". Rheum. Dis. Clin. North Am. 41 (4): 643–63. doi:10.1016/j.rdc.2015.07.006. PMID 26476224.
  13. Hsieh J, Kadavath S, Efthimiou P (May 2014). "Can traumatic injury trigger psoriatic arthritis? A review of the literature". Clin. Rheumatol. 33 (5): 601–8. doi:10.1007/s10067-013-2436-7. PMID 24249146.
  14. Thrastardottir T, Love TJ (November 2017). "Infections and the risk of psoriatic arthritis among psoriasis patients: a systematic review". Rheumatol. Int. doi:10.1007/s00296-017-3873-4. PMID 29124396.
  15. Arnett FC, Reveille JD, Duvic M (February 1991). "Psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection". Rheum. Dis. Clin. North Am. 17 (1): 59–78. PMID 2041889.
  16. Njobvu P, McGill P (July 2000). "Psoriatic arthritis and human immunodeficiency virus infection in Zambia". J. Rheumatol. 27 (7): 1699–702. PMID 10914854.
  17. Eder L, Shanmugarajah S, Thavaneswaran A, Chandran V, Rosen CF, Cook RJ, Gladman DD (February 2012). "The association between smoking and the development of psoriatic arthritis among psoriasis patients". Ann. Rheum. Dis. 71 (2): 219–24. doi:10.1136/ard.2010.147793. PMID 21953342.

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