Proteus infection Microchapters
Proteus infection On the Web
American Roentgen Ray Society Images of Proteus infection
Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. 
Proteus is a urease-producing, motile, nitrite-reducing, hydrogen sulfide-producing, catalase-positive, facultatively anaerobic, Gram-negative bacillus. It can be found in soil, water, and fecal matter. It inhabits the intestinal tracts of humans and animals, and is considered an opportunistic pathogen of humans. Transmission to the human host (usually urinary tract) typically occurs via self-contamination.
Kingdom: Bacteria; Phylum: Proteobacteria; Class: Gamma proteobacteria; Order: Enterobacteriales; Family: Enterobacteria; Genus: Proteus; Species: Proteus mirabilis
- Proteus contains more than 3,658 coding sequences with 7 rRNA loci.
- Total genome length is 4.063 Mb (28.8% GC content).
- Proteus contains a single plasmid that contains 26,298 nucleotides.
- Proteus is a urease-producing, motile, nitrite-reducing, hydrogen sulfide-producing, catalase-positive, facultatively anaerobic, Gram-negative bacillus.
- It grows optimally at 40 °C (104 °F).
- It produces hydrogen sulfide gas, and forms clear films on growth media. It is motile, possessing peritrichous flagella, and is known for its swarming ability. It is commonly found in the intestinal tracts of humans. P. mirabilis is not pathogenic in guinea pigs or chickens.
- Characteristically, Proteus can inhibit the growth of other strains in culture media, resulting in a macroscopically visible line (Dienes line) of reduced bacterial growth where two swarming strains intersect.
- The following table summarizes the microbiological characteristics of Proteus:
|Nitrate reductase||Positive (no formation of gas bubbles)|
|Voges-Proskauer||Negative (may be positive)|
|Urea (Harnstoff test)||Positive|
- Proteus can be found in soil, water, and fecal matter.
- It inhabits the intestinal tracts of humans and animals, and is considered an opportunistic pathogen of humans.
- Proteus is usually transmitted to the human host by self-contamination (e.g. fecal material from gastrointestinal tract to genitourinary tract).
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 Pearson MM, Sebaihia M, Churcher C, Quail MA, Seshasayee AS, Luscombe NM; et al. (2008). "Complete genome sequence of uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis, a master of both adherence and motility". J Bacteriol. 190 (11): 4027–37. doi:10.1128/JB.01981-07. PMC 2395036. PMID 18375554.