Primary hyperaldosteronism surgery

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Syed Hassan A. Kazmi BSc, MD [2]

Overview

Surgery is the mainstay of treatment for unilateral adrenal hyperplasia, aldosterone producing adenomas (APAs), adrenal carcinoma, ectopic ACTH, renin, and deoxycorticosterone secreting tumors.

Surgery

Adrenal lesions producing excess aldosterone are treated mainly by laparoscopic adrenalectomy. Retroperitoneoscopic removal of adrenal glands in patients with primary hyperaldosteronism (Conn's syndrome) is a safe, rapidly performed surgical procedure and can thus be considered as first choice option for treatment of both solitary adrenal adenomas and hyperplasia presenting with a clinically predominating nodule.[1] Symptom resolution may take one to six months after the procedure.

Indications

Surgery for primary hyperaldosteronism is indicated in the following:[2]

Contraindications

Surgery is contraindicated in the following situations:

Post-surgical management

Postoperative management of primary hyperaldosteronism includes the following:[3]

  • PRN use of anti-hypertensives and anti-hypokalemics
  • Anti-hypokalemia can be continued if serum potassium is <3.0 meq/l
  • PAC/PRA should be recorded immediately postoperatively on day one, to ensure surgical cure.
  • Intra-venous saline load test (SLT) or a fludrocortisone suppression test (FST) can be conducted three months after surgery.

Post Surgical Prognosis

Good prognosis after adrenalectomy depends on:[4]

References

  1. Walz MK, Gwosdz R, Levin SL, Alesina PF, Suttorp AC, Metz KA, Wenger FA, Petersenn S, Mann K, Schmid KW (2008). "Retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy in Conn's syndrome caused by adrenal adenomas or nodular hyperplasia". World J Surg. 32 (5): 847–53. doi:10.1007/s00268-008-9513-0. PMID 18343972.
  2. Horsley MG, Bailie GR (1988). "Effectiveness of theophylline monitoring by the use of serum assays". J Clin Pharm Ther. 13 (5): 359–64. PMID 3230101.
  3. Horsley MG, Bailie GR (1988). "Effectiveness of theophylline monitoring by the use of serum assays". J Clin Pharm Ther. 13 (5): 359–64. PMID 3230101.
  4. Funder JW, Carey RM, Fardella C, Gomez-Sanchez CE, Mantero F, Stowasser M, Young WF, Montori VM (2008). "Case detection, diagnosis, and treatment of patients with primary aldosteronism: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 93 (9): 3266–81. doi:10.1210/jc.2008-0104. PMID 18552288.

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