Polyuria resident survival guide

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Polyuria Resident Survival Guide Microchapters
Overview
Causes
Diagnosis
Treatment
Do's

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Zaida Obeidat, M.D.

Synonyms and Keywords: Approach to polyuria, Approach to dilute urine, Polyuria management, Polyuria work-up

Overview

Causes

Life Threatening Causes

  • Life-threatening causes include conditions that may result in death or permanent disability within 24 hours if left untreated.
  • Polyuria does not have life-threatening causes.

Common causes [2] [3]

Approach to Polyuria

Shown below is an algorithm summarizing the approach to polyuria.
Abbreviations: DI: Diabetes insipidus;

Hypotonic Polyuria

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Suspected hypotonic polyuria[4]
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Confirm presence of polyuria
>50ml/kg/24hrs or >3-4L/day
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Polyuria confirmed
 
 
 
No polyuria/ or >800 mOsm/kg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Measure urine osmolality
 
 
 
Diabetes insipidus(DI)/Primary polydipsia ruled out
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
<800 mOsm/kg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Hypotonic polyuria confirmed
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Measure serum Sodium and plasma osmolality
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Low normal or low serum Sodium <150 mmol/L, plasma osmolality <280 mOsm/kg
 
 
 
 
Normal serum Sodium/plasma osmolality
 
 
 
High serum Sodium >146 mmol/L, plasma osmolality >300 mOsm/kg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Primary polydipsia
 
 
 
 
Indeterminate diagnosis
 
 
 
Central or Nephrogenic DI
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Water deprivation test
 
 
 
 
 
Baseline plasma copeptin
 
 
 
Hypertonic saline infusion test
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Urine Osm >800 mOsm/kg
 
Urine Osm <300 mOsm/kg
 
Urine Osm 300-800 mOsm/kg
 
 
 
 
 
 
Plasma coprptin >4.9pmol/L
 
Plasma coprptin <4.9pmol/L
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mild primary polyuria
 
Desmopressin administration
 
 
 
 
>21pmol/L
 
<2.6pmol/L
 
>2.6pmol/L
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Urine Osmolality: 300-800 mOsm/Kg and <50% increase
 
Nephrogenic DI(partial or complete)
 
Complete Central DI
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Therapeutic trial with desmopressin
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Primary polydipsia
 
Partial Nephrogenic DI
 
Partial Central DI
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Initial urine osmolality: 30 mOsm/kg and >50% increase after desmopressin:
 
Urine osmolality <300 mOsm/kg or <50% increase
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Complete Central DI
 
Complete Nephrogenic DI
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Polyuria

Shown below algorithm for the diagnostic approach to polyuria based on the American Journal of Kidney Diseases.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Polyuria
(Urine Output > 3L/d)[5]
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Urine Osmolality
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Uosm <100mOsm/kg
(Water Diuresis)

*Psychogenic Polydipsia
*DI (central and nephrogenic)
 
 
 
 
Uosm =100-300mOsm (Mixed Polyuria)
*Partial DI(central and Nephrogenic)
*Simultaneous water and solute intake
*CKD
 
 
 
 
Uosm >300mOsm/kg
(Solute Diuresis)

*Hyperglycemia
*Azotemia
*High solute intake
intravenous fluids
enteral and parenteral nutrition
Exogenous supplements
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Water Deprivation Test
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
24-Hour Urine Collection
(estimation of osmoles)
*Urine sodium
*Urine potassium
*Urine glucose
*Urine urea nitrogen
*Other osmoles
 

Treatment

The management of polyuria depends on the underlying cause. Click on each disease shown below to see detailed management for every cause of polyuria.

Do's

  • Recommend diet modification, like avoiding any food that irritates the bladder including caffeine, alcohol, carbonated drinks, tomato-based products, chocolate, artificial sweeteners, and spicy foods.
  • Monitor fluid food intake, drink enough to prevent constipation and over-concentration of urine, and avoid drinking just before bedtime.
  • Recommend Kegel exercises to strengthen the muscles around the bladder and urethra.

References

  1. Moore K, Thompson C, Trainer P (2003). "Disorders of water balance". Clin Med (Lond). 3 (1): 28–33. doi:10.7861/clinmedicine.3-1-28. PMC 4953350. PMID 12617410.
  2. Wieliczko M, Matuszkiewicz-Rowińska J (2013). "[Polyuria]". Wiad Lek. 66 (4): 324–8. PMID 24490488.
  3. Weiss JP, Everaert K (2019). "Management of Nocturia and Nocturnal Polyuria". Urology. 133S: 24–33. doi:10.1016/j.urology.2019.09.022. PMID 31586470.
  4. Feingold KR, Anawalt B, Boyce A, Chrousos G, de Herder WW, Dungan K; et al. (2000). "Endotext". PMID 30779536.
  5. Bhasin B, Velez JC (2016). "Evaluation of Polyuria: The Roles of Solute Loading and Water Diuresis". Am J Kidney Dis. 67 (3): 507–11. doi:10.1053/j.ajkd.2015.10.021. PMID 26687922.