Pineal yolk sac tumor
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Synonyms and Keywords: Pineal yolk sac tumors; Pineal yolk sac tumour; Pineal yolk sac tumours; Pineal endodermal sinus tumor; Pineal endodermal sinus tumors; Pineal endodermal sinus tumour; Pineal endodermal sinus tumours; Pineal yolk sac carcinoma; Pineal yolk sac carcinomas; Pineal gland tumor; Germ cell tumor; Brain tumor
Pineal yolk sac tumor is a rare type of extra gonadal yolk sac tumor. They make up a small fraction of all intracranial germ cell tumors and an even small fraction of pineal masses overall.Pure pineal yolk sac tumors secrete AFP.On microscopic histopathological analysis, pineal yolk sac tumor is characterized by poorly differentiated endothelial-like, cuboidal, or columnar cells with prominent nucleoli and significant mitotic activity.Pineal yolk sac tumor is demonstrated by positivity to tumor markers such as AFP, cytokeratin, and AAT.In upto 50% of cases, these tumors co-exist with other germ cell tumors Pineal yolk sac tumor may be associated with Down syndrome.Common complication of pineal yolk sac tumor includes obstructive hydrocephalus.Prognosis of pineal yolk sac tumor is generally poor.Symptoms of pineal yolk sac tumor include headache, nausea, vomiting, weakness, confusion, and somnolence.Head CT scan and brain MRI may be helpful in the diagnosis of pineal yolk sac tumor.On head CT scan, pineal yolk sac tumor is characterized by a hypodense, heterogenous mass in the pineal region with signs of obstructive hydrocephalus.On brain MRI, pineal yolk sac tumor is characterized by hypointensity on T1-weighted images and hyperintensity on T2-weighted images.There may be enhancement after contrast administration.Biopsy is generally done to confirm the diagnosis of pineal yolk sac tumor.
- Tumors of brainstaim as well as pineal gland,were unoperable until late of 20th century.
- Dr Cushing reported one of the first case in 1904.
- Dr Horsley in 1905 was the first who did direct surgical intervention,and in 1913 Dr Oppenhein and Krause resected pineal tumor sucssesfully.
- There are only two case Reports of pineal yolk sac tumor that are associated with Down's syndrome in English literature.
- There is so many classification system for pure pineal tumors.
- The most current system is for World Health Organization(WHO).
- Louis and associates edited classification of Central Nervous System tumors and published in 2007.
Adapted from WHO:
|GERMCELL TOMURS||60%||Rest of germ cells|
|Germinoma MATURE TERATOMAMATURE TERATOMATERATOMA with Malignant Transformstion Yolk sac tomur|
|PINEAL PARANCHIMAL TUMORS||30%||pineal glandular tissue|
|pineocytoma (WHO grade ɪ ) pineal paranchymal tomur of intermediate diffrentiation(WHO grade ɪɪ or ɪɪɪ)|
|TOMURS OF SUPPORTIVE AND ADJUCENT STRUCTURES||10%|
|ASTROCYTOMAGlioma (glioblastoma or oligodendroglioma)Medulloepithelioma||Glial cells|
|Ependymomachoroid plexus papilloma||Ependymal lining|
|HemangiomaHemangiopericytoma or||vascular cells|
|NON-NEOPLASTIC TUMOR LIKE CONDITIONS||< 1%|
|Arachnoid cysts||Arachnoid cells|
|Degenerative cysts(pineal cysts)||Glial cells|
|Cavernomas Aneurysms of the vein Galen|
|METASTASES||<.,1%||Absence of blood -|
|Lung (most common),breast,stomach,kidney,melanoma|
- The exact pathogenesis of extragonadal germ cell tumors is not fully understood.
- It is thought that extragonadal germ cell tumors is the result of arresting erroneously of precursos germ cells in midline migration during emberiogenesis.
- The other theory is that EGGCTs are metastases of undiagnosed primary GCTs. 
Differentiating Intracranial Germ cell Tumors from Other Diseases
- Intracranial germcell tumors must be differentiated from other diseases that cause compressive syndrome ,rise of intracranial pressure , such as other brain tumors and every disease who can rise ICP.
- Extra gonadal Germ cell tumors should be in differential diagnosis of pineal germ cell tumors.
Epidemiology and Demographics
- The incidence of pineal tumor is approximately [1%] of all intracranial tumors.
- The incidence of pineal tumor is 0,06 -0,07 per 100,000 persons per year.
- Patients of all age groups may develop pineal yolk sac tumor,But is more common in children(3-8%)and also in Japenes population.
- There is no racial predilection to pineal tumors.
- pineal tumors affect men more than women.
- The majority of pineal tumor cases are reported in Japenes population.
- There are no established risk factors for pineal yolk sac tumor.
- There is insufficient evidence to recommend routine screening for pineal yolk sac tumors.
=Natural History, Complications, and Prognosis
- We can classified intracranial germ cell tumors to three main groups; good,intermediate and bad.
- pineal yolk sac tumor is in the poor prognosis classification.
- Factors that make poor prognosis is ;female ,age greater than 18,non germinoma GCTs.
Diagnostic Study of Choice
- In 54% of cases diagnosis is delayed because of non-specific symptoms.
- The diagnosis of cranial germ cell tumors is based on the CT,MRI with gadolinium fundings and level of biomarkers(HCG,AFP)of serum and csf.also histology need for diffrentiate type of GCTs.With normal biomarkers level ,for definitive diagnosis biopsy is requiered.
- In addition we should determine Immunohistochemichal markers for diagnosis(c-kit/CD117,oct3/4,PLAP).
=History and Symptoms
- The most common symptoms of intracranial germ cell tumors include parinaud syn (because of hydrocephalus or commpresion of tectal plate ). Common symptoms of intracranial GCTs include DI(due to hydrocephalus), ataxia and dysmetria if affecting superior cerebellar peduncles, precocious puberty,headache ,nausea,ocolomotor or facial paresis,seizure.
facial nerve parasia.
Echocardiography or Ultrasound
- Brain CT scan may be helpful in the diagnosis of intracranial Germ cell tumors. Findings on CT scan suggestive of cranial yolk sac tumors include irregular mass,may have multi cysts, and solid component has calcifications,also in plain CT is iso-low density mass with heterogenous enhancement.
- Brain MRIT2-based may be helpful in the diagnosis of cranial germ celltumors. Findings on MRI T2 based diagnostic of intracranial GCTs include hyperintense to normal paranchyma.
Other Imaging Findings
- There are no other imaging findings associated with cranial GCTs.
=Other Diagnostic Studies
- Immunohistochemichal markers and histological features may be helpful in the diagnosis of cranial GCTs. Findings suggestive of yolk sac tumor include reticular /microcytic,psudopapillary/endodermal sinus,glandular and solid patterns.
- The mainstay of therapy for pineal yolk sac tumor is radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. Sometimes, surgical resection may be done.
|Management Options of Penial Gland tumors|
|Chemotherapy as part of multimodality therapy||
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|pmc=value (help). PMID 31441839.
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