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Synonyms and related keywords: Dibenzoparathiazine; Thiodiphenylamine; AFI-Tiazin; Agrazine; Antiverm; Biverm; Dibenzothiazine; Orimon; Lethelmin; Souframine; Nemazene; Vermitin; Padophene; Fenoverm; Phenovarm; Fentiazine; Contaverm; Fenothiazine, Ieeno; ENT 38; Helmetina; Helmetine, Penthazine; XL-50; Wurm-thional; Fentiazin; Padophene; Phenegic; Phenovis; Phenoxur; Reconox, Fenergan, Protazine; Thiergan [1]


It is commonly used as an intermediate chemical in the manufacture of various antipsychotic neuroleptic psychotropic drugs. It originally was developed as a synthetic dye in 1883, [2] and it was introduced by DuPont as an insecticide in 1935.[3]

It is sometimes used as an antihelminthic in livestock. It is used as an industrial chemical in the manufacture of rubber additives.[4]

Phenothiazine pesticides work by affecting the nervous system of insects, inhibiting the breakdown of acetylcholine by disabling the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. Many of the side effects of phenothiazine neuroleptic antipsychotics are due to their anticholinergic blocking effects. [5]

Phenothiazine is also a potent alpha-adrenergic blocking agent.

Phenothiazine-derivative drugs

The term "phenothiazines" is used to describe the largest of the five main classes of neuroleptic antipsychotic drugs. These drugs have antipsychotic and, often, antiemetic properties, although they may also cause severe side effects such as akathisia, tardive dyskinesia, extrapyramidal symptoms, and the rare but potentially fatal neuroleptic malignant syndrome as well as substantial weight gain.

The phenothiazine class of neuroleptic antipsychotic psychotropics are closely related to the thioxanthenes which are very similar pharmacologically.

There are three groups of phenothiazine antipsychotics, differing by their chemical structure and their pharmacological effects. They are the aliphatic compounds, the piperidines and piperazines. An aliphatic compound, piperidine or piperazine functional group is added to the phenothiazine molecule for the purpose of enhancing absorption and bioavailability of the phenothiazine chemical.

Group Autonomic Example Sedative Extrapyramidal side-effect
Aliphatic compounds
moderate Chlorpromazine (marketed as Thorazine, Chlor-PZ, Klorazine, Promachlor, Promapar, Sonazine, Chlorprom, Chlor-Promanyl, Largactil) strong moderate
Promazine (trade name Sparine) moderate moderate
Triflupromazine (trade names Stelazine, Clinazine, Novaflurazine, Pentazine, Terfluzine, Triflurin, Vesprin) strong moderate/strong
Levomepromazine in Germany and Methotrimeprazine in America (trade names Nozinan, Nozinan, Levoprome) extremely strong low
Piperidines strong Mesoridazine (trade name Serentil) strong weak
Thioridazine (trade names Mellaril, Novoridazine, Thioril) strong weak
Piperazines weak Fluphenazine (trade names Prolixin, Permitil, Modecate, Moditen) weak/moderate strong
Perphenazine (sold as Trilafon, Etrafon, Triavil, Phenazine, Etrafon) weak/moderate strong
Flupentixol (sold as Depixol, Fluanxol) moderate strong
Prochlorperazine (trade names Compazine, Stemetil)
Trifluoperazine (trade name Stelazine) moderate strong


  1. U.S. Department of Labor Occupational Safety & Health Administration Chemical Sampling Information [[Phenothiazine Also see: OSHA Also see: PAN Pesticides Database
  2. Whitaker R (2004). "The case against antipsychotic drugs: a 50-year record of doing more harm than good". Med. Hypotheses. 62 (1): 5–13. doi:10.1016/S0306-9877(03)00293-7. PMID 14728997.
  3. History of Insecticides and Control Equipment Clemson University Pesticide Information Program.
  4. NPL Site Narrative for Forest Glen Mobile Home Subdivision FOREST GLEN MOBILE HOME SUBDIVISION Niagara Falls, New York Federal Register Notice: November 21, 1989
  5. "Facts and Comparisons" III W. Port Plaza, Suite 300 St. Louis MO. USA 63146-3098 (telephone 314-216-2100 or 1-800-223-0554). The updatable section called "Antipsychotic Agents" is (c)1990

Further reading

External links

de:Phenothiazine it:Fenotiazine sv:Tioridazin

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