Osteoporosis causes

Jump to navigation Jump to search

Osteoporosis Microchapters


Patient Information


Historical Perspective




Differentiating Osteoporosis from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors


Natural History, Complications and Prognosis


History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings





Echocardiography or Ultrasound

Other Imaging Findings

Other Diagnostic Studies


Medical Therapy

Life Style Modification


Primary Prevention

Secondary Prevention

Cost-Effectiveness of Therapy

Future or Investigational Therapies

Case Studies

Case #1

Osteoporosis causes On the Web

Most recent articles

Most cited articles

Review articles

CME Programs

Powerpoint slides


American Roentgen Ray Society Images of Osteoporosis causes

All Images
Echo & Ultrasound
CT Images

Ongoing Trials at Clinical Trials.gov

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse

NICE Guidance

FDA on Osteoporosis causes

CDC on Osteoporosis causes

Osteoporosis causes in the news

Blogs on Osteoporosis causes

Directions to Hospitals Treating Osteoporosis

Risk calculators and risk factors for Osteoporosis causes

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Cafer Zorkun, M.D., Ph.D. [2], Raviteja Guddeti,M.B.B.S.[3], Eiman Ghaffarpasand, M.D. [4]


Osteoporosis may be caused by conditions that can lead to the disturbed balance between bone formation and bone resorption. Common causes of osteoporosis include aging, menopause, nutritional deficiency of calcium and/or vitamin D, chronic renal failure, immobility, hyperparathyroidism, and chronic glucocorticoid abuse.


Life-Threatening Causes

Life-threatening causes include conditions which may result in death or permanent disability within 24 hours, if left untreated. There are no life-threatening causes of osteoporosis. However, complications resulting from untreated osteoporosis are common.

Common causes

Less common causes

The unnamed parameter 2= is no longer supported. Please see the documentation for {{columns-list}}.

Causes by organ system

Cardiovascular Werner syndrome, Storm syndrome
Chemical / poisoning Ethanol
Dermatologic Dyskeratosis Congenita, Fanconi-ichthyosis-dysmorphism, Nodulosis-arthropathy-osteolysis syndrome, Osteoporosis -- oculocutaneous -- hypopigmentation syndrome, Xylosylprotein 4-beta-galactosyltransferase (XGPT) deficiency, Tuberous sclerosis, Winchester syndrome
Drug Side Effect Cyproterone, Dexamethasone, Exemestane, Flunisolide, Goserelin, Heparin, Isotretinoin, Methylprednisolone,Oxcarbazepine, Pergolide, Pramipexole, Prednisolone, Prednisone, Triamcinolone
Ear Nose Throat Eccentrochondrodysplasia, Otospondylomegaepiphyseal dysplasia, Osteochondrodysplatic dwarfism -- deafness -- retinitis pigmentosa, Rajab-Spranger syndrome
Endocrine Adrenal adenoma, Adrenal incidentaloma, Adrenocortical carcinoma, Andropause, Acromegaly, Aromatase deficiency, Cushing's disease, Cushing's syndrome, Diabetes Mellitus, Functioning pancreatic endocrine tumor, Gonadal dysgenesis, Hashimoto's Thyroiditis, Hyperadrenalism, Hyperparathyroidism, Hyperthyroidism, Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism -- Syndactyly, Hypopituitaryism, Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, Oncogenic osteomalacia, Ovarian insufficiency due to FSH resistance, Primary hypoparathyroidism, Sub clinical hypothyroidism, Galactorrhoea-Hyperprolactinaemia, Prader-Willi syndrome, Ovarian insufficiency, Wolcott-Rallison syndrome
Environmental No underlying causes
Gastroenterologic Celiac Disease, Cholestasis, Chronic Hepatitis, Chronic Liver Disease, Crohn's disease, Cystic Fibrosis, Fanconi-Albertini-Zellweger syndrome, Haemochromatosis, Maldigestion, Primary biliary cirrhosis, Tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome, Ulcerative colitis, Wilson's Disease, Wolman syndrome, Wolcott-Rallison syndrome
Genetic Abderhalden-Kaufmann-Lignac syndrome, Acroosteolysis neurogenic, Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy, Chromosome 1, deletion q21 q25, Down Syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome - progeroid form, Geroderma osteodysplastica, Hajdu-Cheney syndrome, Hutchinson Gilford Syndrome, Hyper IgE syndrome/Job syndrome, Iridogoniodysgenesis and skeletal anomalies, Larsen syndrome- recessive type, Lobstein disease, Lockwood-Feingold syndrome, Lysinuric protein intolerance, Marfan syndrome, Metaphyseal chondrodysplasia Spahr type, Metaphyseal dysplasia Pyle type, Menkes Disease, Morquio syndrome, Osteogenesis imperfecta, Osteolysis hereditary multicentric, Osteoporosis-pseudoglioma syndrome, Otospondylomegaepiphyseal dysplasia, Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease, recessive, acute infantile, Pena Shokeir syndrome, Prolidase deficiency, Sakati syndrome, Singleton-Merten syndrome, Sponastrime dysplasia, Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia with multiple dislocations, Spondylometaphyseal dysplasia with dentinogenesis imperfecta, Spondylo-ocular syndrome, Snyder-Robinson syndrome, Storm syndrome, Thick skull syndrome, Urban rogers meyer syndrome, Spinocerebellar ataxia --dysmorphism, Wolcott-Rallison syndrome
Hematologic Alpha thalassemia, Beta thalassemia, Diamond-Blackfan anemia, Generalized mastocytosis, Hemoglobin H disease, Leukemia, Lymphoma, Multiple Myeloma, Sickle cell anemia, Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia
Iatrogenic Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, Anticonvulsant-induced osteoporosis
Infectious Disease No underlying causes
Musculoskeletal / Ortho Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy, Boyd-Stearns syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome- progeroid form, Female athlete triad, Fanconi-ichthyosis-dysmorphism, Fontaine-Farriaux-Lanckaert syndrome, Gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia, Geroderma osteodysplastica, Hyperostosis corticalis deformans juvenilis, Hajdu-Cheney syndrome, Hyper IgE syndrome/Job syndrome, Hypertrichotic osteochondrodysplasia, Kaler-Garrity-Stern syndrome, Lobstein disease, Lockwood-Feingold syndrome, Osteogenesis imperfecta, Pena Shokeir syndrome, Oncogenic osteomalacia, Osteoporosis -- macrocephaly -- mental retardation -- blindness, Otospondylomegaepiphyseal dysplasia, Osteochondrodysplatic dwarfism -- deafness -- retinitis pigmentosa, Paget's disease of bone, Pointer syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, Richieri-Costa Da Silva syndrome, Riley Shwachman syndrome, Schwartz-Jampel Syndrome, Singleton-Merten syndrome, Sponastrime dysplasia, Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia with multiple dislocations, Spondylometaphyseal dysplasia with dentinogenesis imperfecta, Spondylo-ocular syndrome,Shprintzen-Golberg craniosynostosis, Systemic infantile hyalinosis, Torg osteolysis syndrome, Snyder-Robinson syndrome, Thick skull syndrome, Winchester syndrome, Xylosylprotein 4-beta-galactosyltransferase (XGPT) deficiency
Neurologic Acroosteolysis neurogenic, Brown-Sequard Syndrome, Fanconi-Albertini-Zellweger syndrome, Lactotroph adenoma, Osteopaenia -- myopia -- hearing loss -- intellectual deficit -- facial dysmorphism, Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease, recessive, acute infantile, Rajab-Spranger syndrome, Snyder-Robinson syndrome, Spinocerebellar ataxia -- dysmorphism, Shprintzen-Golberg craniosynostosis , Tuberous sclerosis, Werner syndrome, Wilson's Disease
Nutritional/Metabolic Anorexia nervosa, Calcium deficiency, Copper deficiency, Cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency, Dibasic aminoaciduria 2, Excessive Dieting, Fabry's disease, Glycerol kinase deficiency, Homocystinuria, Hyperglycerolemia - infantile form, Haemochromatosis, Hypophosphatemic rickets, Infantile sialic acid storage disorder, Lysinuric protein intolerance, Menkes Disease, Methylmalonic acidemia, Oxalosis, Peroxisomal bifunctional enzyme deficiency, Prolidase deficiency, Protein deficiency, Underweight, Vitamin C deficiency/Scurvy
Obstetric/Gynecologic Female athlete triad, Menopause, Ovarian insufficiency, Pregnancy
Oncologic Adrenal adenoma, Adrenal incidentaloma, Adrenocortical carcinoma, Functioning pancreatic endocrine tumor, Leukemia, Lactotroph adenoma, Lymphoma, Multiple Myeloma
Opthalmologic Eccentrochondrodysplasia, Osteopaenia -- myopia -- hearing loss -- intellectual deficit -- facial dysmorphism, Osteoporosis -- macrocephaly -- mental retardation -- blindness, Osteoporosis-pseudoglioma syndrome, Osteochondrodysplatic dwarfism -- deafness -- retinitis pigmentosa, Osteoporosis -- oculocutaneous -- hypopigmentation syndrome, Spondylo-ocular syndrome, Schwartz-Jampel Syndrome, Winchester syndrome, Werner syndrome
Overdose / Toxicity No underlying causes
Psychiatric Depression
Pulmonary Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Cystic Fibrosis
Renal / Electrolyte Abderhalden-Kaufmann-Lignac syndrome, Chronic acidosis, Chronic hypophosphatemia, Chronic renal failure, Fanconi-ichthyosis-dysmorphism, Fanconi-Albertini-Zellweger syndrome, Kidney disease, Renal osteodystrophy, Short stature -- hyperkaliemia -- acidosis
Rheum / Immune / Allergy Ankylosing spondylitis, Dyskeratosis Congenita, Rheumatoid disease, Sarcoidosis
Sexual No underlying causes
Trauma No underlying causes
Urologic No underlying causes
Dental No underlying causes
Miscellaneous Aging, Alcoholism, Athletes, Bonnet-Dechaume-Blanc syndrome, Davis syndrome, Idiopathic, Immobility, Lack of exercise, Marie-Bamberg syndrome, Mixed connective tissue disease, Orchidectomy, Postgastrectomy, Premature aging, Pseudoprogeria syndrome, Reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome, Zero gravity

Causes in alphabetical order

  • Dyskeratosis Congenital[10]
  • Hyperostosis corticalis deformans juvenilis
  • Iridogoniodysgenesis and skeletal anomalies
  • Kaler-Garrity-Stern syndrome[16]
  • Lack of exercise
  • Larsen syndrome, recessive type[18]
  • Marie-Bamberg syndrome
  • Osteoporosis -- macrocephaly -- mental retardation -- blindness[22]
  • Osteoporosis-pseudoglioma syndrome[24]
  • Pena Shokeir syndrome
  • Peroxisomal bifunctional enzyme deficiency
  • Pointer syndrome[25]
  • Pseudoprogeria syndrome
  • Schwartz-Jampel Syndrome
  • Snyder-Robinson syndrome[29]
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia-dysmorphism
  • Sponastrime dysplasia[30]
  • Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia with multiple dislocations
  • Spondylometaphyseal dysplasia with dentinogenesis imperfecta
  • Spondylo-ocular syndrome[31]
  • Systemic infantile hyalinosis
  • Thick skull syndrome
  • Torg osteolysis syndrome[32]
  • White Phosphorus poisoning
  • Wolman syndrome


  1. 1.0 1.1 Padova G, Borzì G, Incorvaia L, Siciliano G, Migliorino V, Vetri M, Tita P (2011). "Prevalence of osteoporosis and vertebral fractures in acromegalic patients". Clin Cases Miner Bone Metab. 8 (3): 37–43. PMC 3279059. PMID 22461828.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Goswami M, Verma M, Singh A, Grewal H, Kumar G (2009). "Albright hereditary osteodystrophy: a rare case report". J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 27 (3): 184–8. doi:10.4103/0970-4388.57101. PMID 19841552.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Krysiak R, Okopień B (2012). "[Pathogenesis and clinical presentation of andropause]". Pol. Merkur. Lekarski (in Polish). 32 (187): 70–3. PMID 22400185.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Saltzstein RJ, Hardin S, Hastings J (1992). "Osteoporosis in spinal cord injury: using an index of mobility and its relationship to bone density". J Am Paraplegia Soc. 15 (4): 232–4. PMID 1431871.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Nojiri H, Saita Y, Morikawa D, Kobayashi K, Tsuda C, Miyazaki T, Saito M, Marumo K, Yonezawa I, Kaneko K, Shirasawa T, Shimizu T (2011). "Cytoplasmic superoxide causes bone fragility owing to low-turnover osteoporosis and impaired collagen cross-linking". J. Bone Miner. Res. 26 (11): 2682–94. doi:10.1002/jbmr.489. PMID 22025246.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Lekva T, Ueland T, Bøyum H, Evang JA, Godang K, Bollerslev J (2012). "TXNIP is highly regulated in bone biopsies from patients with endogenous Cushing's syndrome and related to bone turnover". Eur. J. Endocrinol. 166 (6): 1039–48. doi:10.1530/EJE-11-1082. PMID 22450549.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Grasswick LJ, Bradford JM (2003). "Osteoporosis associated with the treatment of paraphilias: a clinical review of seven case reports". J. Forensic Sci. 48 (4): 849–55. PMID 12877306.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Vasireddy S, Swinson DR (2001). "Male osteoporosis associated with longterm cyproterone treatment". J. Rheumatol. 28 (7): 1702–3. PMID 11469484.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Gold DT, Solimeo S (2006). "Osteoporosis and depression: a historical perspective". Curr Osteoporos Rep. 4 (4): 134–9. PMID 17112423.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Pignolo RJ, Suda RK, McMillan EA, Shen J, Lee SH, Choi Y, Wright AC, Johnson FB (2008). "Defects in telomere maintenance molecules impair osteoblast differentiation and promote osteoporosis". Aging Cell. 7 (1): 23–31. doi:10.1111/j.1474-9726.2007.00350.x. PMC 2394673. PMID 18028256.
  11. 11.0 11.1 Delsignore JL, Dvoretsky PM, Hicks DG, O'Keefe RJ, Rosier RN (1996). "Mastocytosis presenting as a skeletal disorder". Iowa Orthop J. 16: 126–34. PMC 2378151. PMID 9129284.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Boente Mdel C, Asial RA, Winik BC (2006). "Geroderma osteodysplastica. Report of a new family". Pediatr Dermatol. 23 (5): 467–72. doi:10.1111/j.1525-1470.2006.00285.x. PMID 17014644.
  13. 13.0 13.1 Riminucci M, Collins MT, Corsi A, Boyde A, Murphey MD, Wientroub S, Kuznetsov SA, Cherman N, Robey PG, Bianco P (2001). "Gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia: a syndrome of fibro-osseous lesions of jawbones, bone fragility, and long bone bowing". J. Bone Miner. Res. 16 (9): 1710–8. doi:10.1359/jbmr.2001.16.9.1710. PMID 11547842.
  14. 14.0 14.1 Nozaki T, Ihara K, Makimura M, Kinjo T, Hara T (2012). "A girl with Hajdu-Cheney syndrome and premature ovarian failure". J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab. 25 (1–2): 171–3. PMID 22570971.
  15. 15.0 15.1 Hennekam RC (2006). "Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome: review of the phenotype". Am. J. Med. Genet. A. 140 (23): 2603–24. doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.31346. PMID 16838330.
  16. 16.0 16.1 Kaler SG, Garrity AM, Stern HJ, Rosenbaum KN, Orrison BM, Marini JC, Bernardini I, Saal HM (1992). "New autosomal recessive syndrome of sparse hair, osteopenia, and mental retardation in Mennonite sisters". Am. J. Med. Genet. 43 (6): 983–8. doi:10.1002/ajmg.1320430615. PMID 1415349.
  17. 17.0 17.1 Ferlin A, Schipilliti M, Foresta C (2011). "Bone density and risk of osteoporosis in Klinefelter syndrome". Acta Paediatr. 100 (6): 878–84. doi:10.1111/j.1651-2227.2010.02138.x. PMID 21214887.
  18. 18.0 18.1 Kurtoglu S, Dundar M, Hallaç IK, Uzüm K, Okumuş Y, Oktem T (1997). "Polycystic kidney disease, biliary dysgenesis in a patient with Larsen's syndrome". Clin. Genet. 51 (6): 408–11. PMID 9237505.
  19. 19.0 19.1 Tanaka H (2005). "[Systemic bone diseases; clues for the pathogenetic mechanism of osteoporosis]". Clin Calcium. 15 (5): 776–82. PMID 15876739.
  20. 20.0 20.1 Gok F, Crettol LM, Alanay Y, Hacihamdioglu B, Kocaoglu M, Bonafe L, Ozen S (2010). "Clinical and radiographic findings in two brothers affected with a novel mutation in matrix metalloproteinase 2 gene". Eur. J. Pediatr. 169 (3): 363–7. doi:10.1007/s00431-009-1028-7. PMID 19653001.
  21. 21.0 21.1 Khaldi F, Bennaceur B, Gharbi HA (1989). "[Familial osteochondrodysplatic dwarfism associated with deafness and tapeto-retinal heredo-degeneration]". Arch. Fr. Pediatr. (in French). 46 (6): 429–32. PMID 2783003.
  22. 22.0 22.1 Heide T (1981). "[A syndrome of osteogenesis imperfecta, macrocephaly, wormian bones, frontal bossing, brachytelephalangy, hyperextensible joints, congenital blindness and oligophrenia in 3 sibs (author's transl)]". Klin Padiatr (in German). 193 (4): 334–40. doi:10.1055/s-2008-1034490. PMID 7265806.
  23. 23.0 23.1 Hernández A, Nazará Z, Reynoso MC, Sarralde A, Bobadilla L, Fragoso R (1996). "Generalized osteoporosis in a patient with oculocutaneous hypopigmentation syndrome (OOCHS), without cerebral defects. A new syndrome?". Clin. Genet. 49 (1): 46–8. PMID 8721572.
  24. 24.0 24.1 Gong Y, Vikkula M, Boon L, Liu J, Beighton P, Ramesar R, Peltonen L, Somer H, Hirose T, Dallapiccola B, De Paepe A, Swoboda W, Zabel B, Superti-Furga A, Steinmann B, Brunner HG, Jans A, Boles RG, Adkins W, van den Boogaard MJ, Olsen BR, Warman ML (1996). "Osteoporosis-pseudoglioma syndrome, a disorder affecting skeletal strength and vision, is assigned to chromosome region 11q12-13". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 59 (1): 146–51. PMC 1915094. PMID 8659519.
  25. 25.0 25.1 Huq AH, Braverman RM, Greenberg F, Bacino CA, Rimoin DL, Lachman RS, Levin ML (1997). "The Pointer syndrome: a new syndrome with skeletal abnormalities, camptodactyly, facial anomalies, and feeding difficulties". Am. J. Med. Genet. 68 (2): 225–30. PMID 9028464.
  26. 26.0 26.1 Dytfeld J, Horst-Sikorska W (2012). "Pregnancy associated osteoporosis--a case report". Ginekol. Pol. 83 (5): 377–9. PMID 22708337.
  27. 27.0 27.1 Elshal MF, Bernawi AE, Al-Ghamdy MA, Jalal JA (2012). "The association of bone mineral density and parathyroid hormone with serum magnesium in adult patients with sickle-cell anaemia". Arch Med Sci. 8 (2): 270–6. doi:10.5114/aoms.2012.28554. PMC 3361039. PMID 22662000.
  28. 28.0 28.1 Gay BB, Kuhn JP (1976). "A syndrome of widened medullary cavities of bone, aortic calcification, abnormal dentition, and muscular weakness (the Singleton-Merten syndrome)". Radiology. 118 (2): 389–95. doi:10.1148/118.2.389. PMID 175395.
  29. 29.0 29.1 Becerra-Solano LE, Butler J, Castañeda-Cisneros G, McCloskey DE, Wang X, Pegg AE, Schwartz CE, Sánchez-Corona J, García-Ortiz JE (2009). "A missense mutation, p.V132G, in the X-linked spermine synthase gene (SMS) causes Snyder-Robinson syndrome". Am. J. Med. Genet. A. 149A (3): 328–35. doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.32641. PMC 2653108. PMID 19206178.
  30. 30.0 30.1 Lachman RS, Stoss H, Spranger J (1989). "Sponastrime dysplasia. A radiologic-pathologic correlation". Pediatr Radiol. 19 (6–7): 417–24. PMID 2771481.
  31. 31.0 31.1 Rudolph G, Kalpadakis P, Bettecken T, Lichtner P, Haritoglou C, Hergersberg M, Meitinger T, Schmidt H (2003). "Spondylo-ocular syndrome: a new entity with crystalline lens malformation, cataract, retinal detachment, osteoporosis, and platyspondyly". Am. J. Ophthalmol. 135 (5): 681–7. PMID 12719077.
  32. 32.0 32.1 Jeong SY, Kim BY, Kim HJ, Yang JA, Kim OH (2010). "A novel homozygous MMP2 mutation in a patient with Torg-Winchester syndrome". J. Hum. Genet. 55 (11): 764–6. doi:10.1038/jhg.2010.102. PMID 20720557.
  33. 33.0 33.1 Delépine M, Nicolino M, Barrett T, Golamaully M, Lathrop GM, Julier C (2000). "EIF2AK3, encoding translation initiation factor 2-alpha kinase 3, is mutated in patients with Wolcott-Rallison syndrome". Nat. Genet. 25 (4): 406–9. doi:10.1038/78085. PMID 10932183.
  34. Legrand E, Hoppé E, Bouvard B, Audran M (2012). "[Osteoporosis in men]". Rev Prat (in French). 62 (2): 193–7. PMID 22408860.
  35. Parfitt AM (1976). "The actions of parathyroid hormone on bone: relation to bone remodeling and turnover, calcium homeostasis, and metabolic bone disease. Part IV of IV parts: The state of the bones in uremic hyperaparathyroidism--the mechanisms of skeletal resistance to PTH in renal failure and pseudohypoparathyroidism and the role of PTH in osteoporosis, osteopetrosis, and osteofluorosis". Metab. Clin. Exp. 25 (10): 1157–88. PMID 787723.
  36. Sowińska-Przepiera E, Andrysiak-Mamos E, Jarząbek-Bielecka G, Friebe Z, Syrenicz A (2011). "Effects of oestrogen deficiency on bone mineralisation in girls during "adolescent crisis"". Endokrynol Pol. 62 (6): 538–46. PMID 22144221.
  37. Olgaard K, Storm T, van Wowern N, Daugaard H, Egfjord M, Lewin E, Brandi L (1992). "Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis in the lumbar spine, forearm, and mandible of nephrotic patients: a double-blind study on the high-dose, long-term effects of prednisone versus deflazacort". Calcif. Tissue Int. 50 (6): 490–7. PMID 1525702.

​ ​