Oral candidiasis medical therapy
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Oral candidiasis can be treated with topical anti-fungal drugs, such as nystatin (mycostatin), miconazole or amphotericin B. Patients who are immunocompromised, either with HIV/AIDS or as a result of chemotherapy, may require systemic treatment with oral or intravenous administered antifungals.
Any underlying cause, such as poor glucose control in diabetics, should be addressed. Oral candidiasis can be treated with topical anti-fungal drugs, such as nystatin (mycostatin), miconazole or amphotericin B. Patients who are immunocompromised, either with HIV/AIDS or as a result of chemotherapy, may require systemic treatment with oral or intravenous administered antifungals.
Oral candidiasis usually responds to topical treatments such as clotrimazole troches and nystatin suspension (nystatin - swish and swallow). Systemic antifungal medication such as fluconazole or itraconazole may be necessary for oropharyngeal infections that do not respond to these treatments.
- Oropharyngeal candidiasis
- Preferred regimen: Clotrimazole troches 10 mg TOP q4-5h OR Nystatin suspension or pastilles TOP q6h OR Fluconazole 100–200 mg PO q24h
- Alternative regimen: Itraconazole solution 200 mg PO q24h OR Posaconazole 400 mg PO q24h OR Voriconazole 200 mg PO q24h OR Amphotericin B oral suspension PO q24h OR (Anidulafungin 200 mg IV once THEN Anidulafungin 100 mg IV q24h) OR (Caspofungin 70 mg IV once THEN Caspofungin 50 mg IV q24h) OR Micafungin 100 mg IV q24h OR Amphotericin B 0.3 mg/kg IV q24h
- Note: Treat uncomplicated disease for 7–14 days. Fluconazole is recommended in moderate-to-severe disease, and topical therapy with Clotrimazole or Nystatin is recommended for mild disease. For refractory disease, consider the alternative regimen.
- Medical treatment of oropharyngeal candidiais in immunocompromised patients:
- In pediatric patients: use itraconazole in a dose of 2.5 mg/kg/day.
- Continuous prophylactic fluconazole use is more effective than intermittent use in response to relapses.
- In fluconazole resistant cases: Itraconazole (200 mg twice daily) can be used with cure rate between 64 - 80%
- Posaconazole (200 mg 3 times daily) can be used with cure rate of 80%
- Intravenous caspofungin (200 mg 3 times daily), micafungin (50 mg daily), or anidulafungin (loading dose of 200 mg and 100 mg daily) can be used as alternatives to triazoles.
- Treatment in Newborn:
- Pappas PG, Kauffman CA, Andes D, Benjamin DK, Calandra TF, Edwards JE; et al. (2009). "Clinical practice guidelines for the management of candidiasis: 2009 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America". Clin Infect Dis. 48 (5): 503–35. doi:10.1086/596757. PMID 19191635.