Mumps epidemiology and demographics

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-In-Chief: Lakshmi Gopalakrishnan, M.B.B.S. [2]

Overview

Since the initiation of the MMR vaccination program in the United States, the incidence of mumps has declined by 99%. Currently, the number of cases per year ranges from a couple hundred to a couple thousand. Mumps predominantly occurs in school-age children (5-14 years) but outbreaks have occurred in adolescents and adults. There is currently no significant difference in mumps incidence between sexes and races. Mumps is uncommon in the United States and other developed countries. However sporadic outbreaks have occurred, predominantly in environments that involve close contact or high level of social interaction. Only 57% of countries belonging to the World Health Organization use a mumps vaccine. Most of these countries are developing and mumps remains endemic in these regions.

Epidemiology and Demographics

Incidence

  • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), approximately 212,000 mumps case occurred in 1964, in contrast to 229 in 2012 in the United States.
  • Since the initiation of the MMR vaccination program in the United States, the incidence of mumps has declined by 99%.
  • Currently, the number of cases per year ranges from a couple hundred to a couple thousand.[1]

Age

  • Mumps predominantly occurs in school-age children (5-14 years).
  • Sporadic outbreaks have occurred in adolescents and adults.

Gender

  • Males and females are equally affected by mumps.

Race

  • Between 1988 ad 1993, there was a higher incidence of mumps in African Americans and Hispanics.
  • Currently there is no significant difference in mumps rates between races.

Developed Countries

  • Mumps is uncommon in the United States and other developed countries. However sporadic outbreaks have occurred, predominantly in environments that involve close contact or high level of social interaction.[1]

Developing Countries

  • According to the World Health Organization (WHO) reports, only 57% of countries belonging to the organization use a mumps vaccine. Therefore mumps still remains endemic in many developing (and developed) countries.[2]

Recent Mumps Outbreaks

I. United States: 2009 - 2010

  • Between June 2009 and June 2010, an outbreak occurred in Orthodox Jewish communities in New York and New Jersey affecting 3,405 individuals, 78% of whom were adolescents (13-17 years).
  • The index case occurred in a 11-year-old boy who returned from a trip to the United Kingdom, where an outbreak was also occurring.[3][4]
  • The 2-dose MMR vaccine coverage for adolescents in New York and New Jersey was greater than 90% in 2008 and 2009.[5]

II. United States: 2006

  • In 2006, there were 6,584 mumps cases reported in the United States.
  • The outbreak is presumed to have started at colleges in Iowa and spread to other Midwestern states including Illinois, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wisconsin. These states accounted for 5,586 of the 6,584 reported cases (85%).
  • The age group with the highest incidence was 18-24 years, majority of whom were attending college in the Midwest United States.
  • Majority of patients had received 2 doses of the MMR vaccine.[6]

III. United Kingdom: 2004 - 2005

  • Between 2004 to 2005, the United Kingdom experienced an epidemic when 56,390 cases of mumps were reported.
  • Majority of cases occurred in individuals between ages 15-24 years.
  • Majority of patients did not have 2 doses of the MMR vaccine and only 30.1% of patients in 2004 had received 1 dose.[7]

Resources

CDC: Mumps Outbreaks

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Mumps. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (May 29, 2015). http://www.cdc.gov/mumps/index.html Accessed March 09, 2016.
  2. "Global status of mumps immunization and surveillance". Relevé Épidémiologique Hebdomadaire / Section D'hygiène Du Secrétariat De La Société Des Nations = Weekly Epidemiological Record / Health Section of the Secretariat of the League of Nations. 80 (48): 418–24. 2005. PMID 16350930. 
  3. Barskey, Albert E.; Schulte, Cynthia; Rosen, Jennifer B.; Handschur, Elizabeth F.; Rausch-Phung, Elizabeth; Doll, Margaret K.; Cummings, Kisha P.; Alleyne, E. Oscar; High, Patricia; Lawler, Jacqueline; Apostolou, Andria; Blog, Debra; Zimmerman, Christopher M.; Montana, Barbara; Harpaz, Rafael; Hickman, Carole J.; Rota, Paul A.; Rota, Jennifer S.; Bellini, William J.; Gallagher, Kathleen M. (2012). "Mumps Outbreak in Orthodox Jewish Communities in the United States". New England Journal of Medicine. 367 (18): 1704–1713. ISSN 0028-4793. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1202865. 
  4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2010). "Update: mumps outbreak - New York and New Jersey, June 2009-January 2010.". MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 59 (5): 125–9. PMID 20150887. 
  5. Kutty, Preeta Krishnan; Lawler, Jacqueline; Rausch-Phung, Elizabeth; Ortega-Sanchez, Ismael R; Goodell, Stephen; Schulte, Cynthia; Pollock, Lynn; Valure, Barbara; Hudson, Jean; Gallagher, Kathleen; Blog, Debra (2014). "Epidemiology and the economic assessment of a mumps outbreak in a highly vaccinated population, Orange County, New York, 2009–2010". Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics. 10 (5): 1373–1381. ISSN 2164-5515. doi:10.4161/hv.28389. 
  6. Dayan, Gustavo H.; Quinlisk, M. Patricia; Parker, Amy A.; Barskey, Albert E.; Harris, Meghan L.; Schwartz, Jennifer M. Hill; Hunt, Kae; Finley, Carol G.; Leschinsky, Dennis P.; O'Keefe, Anne L.; Clayton, Joshua; Kightlinger, Lon K.; Dietle, Eden G.; Berg, Jeffrey; Kenyon, Cynthia L.; Goldstein, Susan T.; Stokley, Shannon K.; Redd, Susan B.; Rota, Paul A.; Rota, Jennifer; Bi, Daoling; Roush, Sandra W.; Bridges, Carolyn B.; Santibanez, Tammy A.; Parashar, Umesh; Bellini, William J.; Seward, Jane F. (2008). "Recent Resurgence of Mumps in the United States". New England Journal of Medicine. 358 (15): 1580–1589. ISSN 0028-4793. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa0706589. 
  7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2006). "Mumps epidemic--United kingdom, 2004-2005.". MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 55 (7): 173–5. PMID 16498380. 

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