Multiple sclerosis risk factors

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Fahimeh Shojaei, M.D.,

Overview

Common risk factors in the development of multiple sclerosis are smoking, genetic, ethnic, infection, low vitamin D, and stress. Less common risk factors in the development of multiple sclerosis include African Americans, Mexicans, Japanese, Chinese and Filipinos race and Epstein-Barr virus.

Risk Factors

Common Risk Factors

Less Common Risk Factors

References

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  12. Sundström P, Juto P, Wadell G, Hallmans G, Svenningsson A, Nyström L, Dillner J, Forsgren L (June 2004). "An altered immune response to Epstein-Barr virus in multiple sclerosis: a prospective study". Neurology. 62 (12): 2277–82. PMID 15210894.
  13. Levin LI, Munger KL, Rubertone MV, Peck CA, Lennette ET, Spiegelman D, Ascherio A (May 2005). "Temporal relationship between elevation of epstein-barr virus antibody titers and initial onset of neurological symptoms in multiple sclerosis". JAMA. 293 (20): 2496–500. doi:10.1001/jama.293.20.2496. PMID 15914750.



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