Milrinone

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Milrinone
Adult Indications & Dosage
Pediatric Indications & Dosage
Contraindications
Warnings & Precautions
Adverse Reactions
Drug Interactions
Use in Specific Populations
Administration & Monitoring
Overdosage
Pharmacology
Clinical Studies
How Supplied
Images
Patient Counseling Information
Precautions with Alcohol
Brand Names
Look-Alike Names

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Gerald Chi

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Overview

Milrinone is a inotropic agent and vasodilator that is FDA approved for the treatment of acute decompensated heart failure. Common adverse reactions include hypotension, ventricular arrhythmia, and headache.

Adult Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Adult)

Acute Decompensate Heart Failure
  • Milrinone should be administered with a loading dose followed by a continuous infusion (maintenance dose) according to the following guidelines:
  • Dosing Information
  • Loading Dose
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  • The loading dose may be given undiluted, but diluting to a rounded total volume of 10 or 20 mL may simplify the visualization of the injection rate.
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  • Milrinone drawn from vials should be diluted prior to maintenance dose administration. The diluents that may be used are 0.45% Sodium Chloride Injection, 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, or 5% Dextrose Injection. The table below shows the volume of diluent in milliliters (mL) that must be used to achieve 200 mcg/mL concentration for infusion, and the resultant total volumes.
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  • The infusion rate should be adjusted according to hemodynamic and clinical response. Patients should be closely monitored. In controlled clinical studies, most patients showed an improvement in hemodynamic status as evidenced by increases in cardiac output and reductions in pulmonary capillary wedge pressure.
  • Maintenance Dose
  • The maintenance dose in mL/hr by patient body weight (kg) may be determined by reference to the following table.
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  • When administering milrinone lactate by continuous infusion, it is advisable to use a calibrated electronic infusion device.
Dosage Adjustment in Renally Impaired Patients
  • Data obtained from patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance = 0 to 30 mL/min) but without congestive heart failure have demonstrated that the presence of renal impairment significantly increases the terminal elimination half-life of milrinone. Reductions in infusion rate may be necessary in patients with renal impairment. For patients with clinical evidence of renal impairment, the recommended infusion rate can be obtained from the following table:
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  • Intravenous drug products should be inspected visually and should not be used if particulate matter or discoloration is present.

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Adult)

Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Guideline-Supported Use of Milrinone in adult patients.

Non–Guideline-Supported Use

Low Cardiac Output Syndrome, Pre-Transplantation
  • Dosing Information
  • Loading dose of 50mcg/kg; mean maintenance dose was 0.43 mcg/kg/minute for a mean of 12 days.[1]

Pediatric Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Pediatric)

  • Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Pediatric)

Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Guideline-Supported Use of Milrinone in pediatric patients.

Non–Guideline-Supported Use

Adjunctive Therapy in Septic Shock
  • In pediatric patients with nonhyperdynamic septic shock, intravenous milrinone (loading dose of 50 mg/kg followed by a continuous infusion of 0.5 mg/kg/min) improves cardiovascular function when administered with catecholamines.[2]

Contraindications

  • Milrinone is contraindicated in patients who are hypersensitive to it.

Warnings

  • Whether given orally or by continuous or intermittent intravenous infusion, milrinone has not been shown to be safe or effective in the longer (greater than 48 hours) treatment of patients with heart failure. In a multicenter trial of 1088 patients with Class III and IV heart failure, long-term oral treatment with milrinone was associated with no improvement in symptoms and an increased risk of hospitalization and death. In this study, patients with Class IV symptoms appeared to be at particular risk of life-threatening cardiovascular reactions. There is no evidence that milrinone given by long-term continuous or intermittent infusion does not carry a similar risk.
  • The use of milrinone both intravenously and orally has been associated with increased frequency of ventricular arrhythmias, including nonsustained ventricular tachycardia. Long-term oral use has been associated with an increased risk of sudden death. Hence, patients receiving milrinone should be observed closely with the use of continuous electrocardiographic monitoring to allow the prompt detection and management of ventricular arrhythmias.

Precautions

  • General
  • Milrinone should not be used in patients with severe obstructive aortic or pulmonic valvular disease in lieu of surgical relief of the obstruction. Like other inotropic agents, it may aggravate outflow tract obstruction in hypertrophic subaortic stenosis.
  • Supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias have been observed in the high-risk population treated. In some patients, injections of milrinone and oral milrinone have been shown to increase ventricular ectopy, including nonsustained ventricular tachycardia. The potential for arrhythmia, present in congestive heart failure itself, may be increased by many drugs or combinations of drugs. Patients receiving milrinone should be closely monitored during infusion.
  • Milrinone produces a slight shortening of AV node conduction time, indicating a potential for an increased ventricular response rate in patients with atrial flutter/fibrillation which is not controlled with digitalis therapy.
  • If prior vigorous diuretic therapy is suspected to have caused significant decreases in cardiac filling pressure, milrinone should be cautiously administered with monitoring of blood pressure, heart rate, and clinical symptomatology.
  • There is no experience in controlled trials with infusions of milrinone for periods exceeding 48 hours. Cases of infusion site reactions have been reported with intravenous milrinone therapy. Consequently, careful monitoring of the infusion site should be maintained to avoid possible extravasation.
  • Use in Acute Myocardial Infarction
  • No clinical studies have been conducted in patients in the acute phase of post myocardial infarction. Until further clinical experience with this class of drugs is gained, milrinone is not recommended in these patients.
  • Laboratory Tests
  • Fluid and electrolyte changes and renal function should be carefully monitored during therapy with milrinone. Improvement in cardiac output with resultant diuresis may necessitate a reduction in the dose of diuretic. Potassium loss due to excessive diuresis may predispose digitalized patients to arrhythmias. Therefore, hypokalemia should be corrected by potassium supplementation in advance of or during use of milrinone.

Adverse Reactions

Clinical Trials Experience

Cardiovascular
  • In patients receiving milrinone in Phase II and III clinical trials, ventricular arrhythmias were reported in 12.1%: Ventricular ectopic activity, 8.5%; nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, 2.8%; sustained ventricular tachycardia, 1% and ventricular fibrillation, 0.2% (2 patients experienced more than one type of arrhythmia). Holter recordings demonstrated that in some patients injection of milrinone increased ventricular ectopy, including nonsustained ventricular tachycardia. Life-threatening arrhythmias were infrequent and when present have been associated with certain underlying factors such as preexisting arrhythmias, metabolic abnormalities (e.g., hypokalemia), abnormal digoxin levels and catheter insertion. Milrinone was not shown to be arrhythmogenic in an electrophysiology study. Supraventricular arrhythmias were reported in 3.8% of the patients receiving milrinone. The incidence of both supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias has not been related to the dose or plasma milrinone concentration.
  • Other cardiovascular adverse reactions include hypotension, 2.9% and angina/chest pain, 1.2%.
Neurologic
  • Headaches, usually mild to moderate in severity, have been reported in 2.9% of patients receiving milrinone.
Miscellaneous

Postmarketing Experience

  • In addition to adverse events reported from clinical trials, the following events have been reported from worldwide post-marketing experience with milrinone:

Drug Interactions

  • Drug Interactions
  • Chemical Interactions
  • There is an immediate chemical interaction which is evidenced by the formation of a precipitate when furosemide is injected into an intravenous line of an infusion of milrinone. Therefore, furosemide should not be administered in intravenous lines containing milrinone.

Use in Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category (FDA):

  • Pregnancy Category C
  • Oral administration of milrinone to pregnant rats and rabbits during organogenesis produced no evidence of teratogenicity at dose levels up to 40 mg/kg/day and 12 mg/kg/day, respectively. Milrinone did not appear to be teratogenic when administered intravenously to pregnant rats at doses up to 3 mg/kg/day (about 2.5 times the maximum recommended clinical intravenous dose) or pregnant rabbits at doses up to 12 mg/kg/day, although an increased resorption rate was apparent at both 8 mg/kg/day and 12 mg/kg/day (intravenous) in the latter species. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Milrinone should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.


Pregnancy Category (AUS):

  • Australian Drug Evaluation Committee (ADEC) Pregnancy Category

There is no Australian Drug Evaluation Committee (ADEC) guidance on usage of Milrinone in women who are pregnant.

Labor and Delivery

There is no FDA guidance on use of Milrinone during labor and delivery.

Nursing Mothers

  • Caution should be exercised when milrinone is administered to nursing women, since it is not known whether it is excreted in human milk.

Pediatric Use

  • Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.

Geriatic Use

  • There are no special dosage recommendations for the elderly patient. Ninety percent of all patients administered milrinone in clinical studies were within the age range of 45 to 70 years, with a mean age of 61 years. Patients in all age groups demonstrated clinically and statistically significant responses. No age-related effects on the incidence of adverse reactions have been observed. Controlled pharmacokinetic studies have not disclosed any age-related effects on the distribution and elimination of milrinone.

Gender

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Milrinone with respect to specific gender populations.

Race

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Milrinone with respect to specific racial populations.

Renal Impairment

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Milrinone in patients with renal impairment.

Hepatic Impairment

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Milrinone in patients with hepatic impairment.

Females of Reproductive Potential and Males

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Milrinone in women of reproductive potentials and males.

Immunocompromised Patients

There is no FDA guidance one the use of Milrinone in patients who are immunocompromised.

Administration and Monitoring

Administration

  • Intravenous

Monitoring

There is limited information regarding Monitoring of Milrinone in the drug label.

IV Compatibility

There is limited information regarding IV Compatibility of Milrinone in the drug label.

Overdosage

Acute Overdose

Signs and Symptoms

  • Doses of milrinone may produce hypotension because of its vasodilator effect. If this occurs, administration of milrinone should be reduced or temporarily discontinued until the patient's condition stabilizes.

Management

  • No specific antidote is known, but general measures for circulatory support should be taken.

Chronic Overdose

There is limited information regarding Chronic Overdose of Milrinone in the drug label.

Pharmacology

Milrinone svg.png
Milrinone
Systematic (IUPAC) name
6-methyl-2-oxo-5-pyridin-4-yl-1H-pyridine-3-carbonitrile
Identifiers
CAS number 78415-72-2
ATC code C01CE02
PubChem 4197
DrugBank APRD00010
Chemical data
Formula C12H9N3O 
Mol. mass 211.219 g/mol
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 100% (as IV bolus, infusion)
Protein binding 70 to 80%
Metabolism Hepatic (12%)
Half life 2.3 hours
Excretion Urine (85% as unchanged drug) within 24 hours
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.

C(US)

Legal status

Rx Only

Routes IV only

Mechanism of Action

  • Milrinone is a positive inotrope and vasodilator, with little chronotropic activity different in structure and mode of action from either the digitalis glycosides or catecholamines.
  • Milrinone, at relevant inotropic and vasorelaxant concentrations, is a selective inhibitor of peak III cAMP phosphodiesterase isozyme in cardiac and vascular muscle. This inhibitory action is consistent with cAMP mediated increases in intracellular ionized calcium and contractile force in cardiac muscle, as well as with cAMP dependent contractile protein phosphorylation and relaxation in vascular muscle. Additional experimental evidence also indicates that milrinone is not a beta-adrenergic agonist nor does it inhibit sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase activity as do the digitalis glycosides.

Structure

  • Milrinone Lactate Injection, is a member of a new class of bipyridine inotropic/vasodilator agents with phosphodiesterase inhibitor activity, distinct from digitalis glycosides or catecholamines. Milrinone lactate is designated chemically as 1,6-Dihydro-2-methyl-6-oxo[3,4'-bipyridine]-5-carbonitrile lactate and has the following structural formula:
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  • Milrinone is an off-white to tan crystalline compound with a molecular weight of 211.2 and a molecular formula of C12H9N3O. It is slightly soluble in methanol, and very slightly soluble in chloroform and in water. As the lactate salt, it is stable and colorless to pale yellow in solution. Milrinone lactate injection is available as sterile aqueous solutions of the lactate salt of milrinone for injection or infusion intravenously.
  • Sterile, single-dose vials: Single-dose vials of 10, 20 and 50 mL contain in each mL milrinone lactate equivalent to 1 mg milrinone and 47 mg Dextrose, Anhydrous, in Water for Injection. The pH is adjusted to between 3.2 and 4.0 with lactic acid and/or sodium hydroxide. The total concentration of lactic acid can vary between 0.95 mg/mL and 1.29 mg/mL. These vials require preparation of dilutions prior to administration to patients intravenously.
  • Clinical studies in patients with congestive heart failure have shown that milrinone produces dose-related and plasma drug concentration-related increases in the maximum rate of increase of left ventricular pressure. Studies in normal subjects have shown that milrinone produces increases in the slope of the left ventricular pressure-dimension relationship, indicating a direct inotropic effect of the drug. Milrinone also produces dose-related and plasma concentration-related increases in forearm blood flow in patients with congestive heart failure, indicating a direct arterial vasodilator activity of the drug.
  • Both the inotropic and vasodilatory effects have been observed over the therapeutic range of plasma milrinone concentrations of 100 ng/mL to 300 ng/mL.
  • In addition to increasing myocardial contractility, milrinone improves diastolic function as evidenced by improvements in left ventricular diastolic relaxation.
  • The acute administration of intravenous milrinone has also been evaluated in clinical trials in excess of 1600 patients, with chronic heart failure, heart failure associated with cardiac surgery, and heart failure associated with myocardial infarction. * The total number of deaths, either on therapy or shortly thereafter (24 hours) was 15, less than 0.9%, few of which were thought to be drug-related.

Pharmacodynamics

  • In patients with heart failure due to depressed myocardial function, milrinone produced a prompt dose and plasma concentration related increase in cardiac output and decreases in pulmonary capillary wedge pressure and vascular resistance, which were accompanied by mild-to-moderate increases in heart rate. Additionally, there is no increased effect on myocardial oxygen consumption. In uncontrolled studies, hemodynamic improvement during intravenous therapy with milrinone was accompanied by clinical symptomatic improvement, but the ability of milrinone to relieve symptoms has not been evaluated in controlled clinical trials. The great majority of patients experience improvements in hemodynamic function within 5 to 15 minutes of initiation of therapy.
  • In studies in congestive heart failure patients, milrinone when administered as a loading injection followed by a maintenance infusion produced significant mean initial increases in cardiac index of 25 percent, 38 percent, and 42 percent at dose regimens of 37.5 mcg/kg/0.375 mcg/kg/min, 50 mcg/kg/0.50 mcg/kg/min, and 75 mcg/kg/0.75 mcg/kg/min, respectively. Over the same range of loading injections and maintenance infusions, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure significantly decreased by 20 percent, 23 percent, and 36 percent, respectively, while systemic vascular resistance significantly decreased by 17 percent, 21 percent, and 37 percent. Mean arterial pressure fell by up to 5 percent at the two lower dose regimens, but by 17 percent at the highest dose. Patients evaluated for 48 hours maintained improvements in hemodynamic function, with no evidence of diminished response (tachyphylaxis). A smaller number of patients have received infusions of milrinone for periods up to 72 hours without evidence of tachyphylaxis.
  • The duration of therapy should depend upon patient responsiveness.
  • Milrinone has a favorable inotropic effect in fully digitalized patients without causing signs of glycoside toxicity. Theoretically, in cases of atrial flutter/fibrillation, it is possible that milrinone may increase ventricular response rate because of its slight enhancement of AV node conduction. In these cases, digitalis should be considered prior to the institution of therapy with milrinone.
  • Improvement in left ventricular function in patients with ischemic heart disease has been observed. The improvement has occurred without inducing symptoms or electrocardiographic signs of myocardial ischemia.
  • The steady-state plasma milrinone concentrations after approximately 6 to 12 hours of unchanging maintenance infusion of 0.50 mcg/kg/min are approximately 200 ng/mL. Near maximum favorable effects of milrinone on cardiac output and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure are seen at plasma milrinone concentrations in the 150 ng/mL to 250 ng/mL range.

Pharmacokinetics

  • Following intravenous injections of 12.5 mcg/kg to 125 mcg/kg to congestive heart failure patients, milrinone had a volume of distribution of 0.38 liters/kg, a mean terminal elimination half-life of 2.3 hours, and a clearance of 0.13 liters/kg/hr. Following intravenous infusions of 0.20 mcg/kg/min to 0.70 mcg/kg/min to congestive heart failure patients, the drug had a volume of distribution of about 0.45 liters/kg, a mean terminal elimination half-life of 2.4 hours, and a clearance of 0.14 liters/kg/hr. These pharmacokinetic parameters were not dose-dependent, and the area under the plasma concentration versus time curve following injections was significantly dose-dependent.
  • Milrinone has been shown (by equilibrium dialysis) to be approximately 70% bound to human plasma protein.
  • The primary route of excretion of milrinone in man is via the urine. The major urinary excretions of orally administered milrinone in man are milrinone (83%) and its 0-glucuronide metabolite (12%). Elimination in normal subjects via the urine is rapid, with approximately 60% recovered within the first two hours following dosing and approximately 90% recovered within the first eight hours following dosing. The mean renal clearance of milrinone is approximately 0.3 liters/min, indicative of active secretion.

Nonclinical Toxicology

  • Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
  • Twenty-four months of oral administration of milrinone to mice at doses up to 40 mg/kg/day (about 50 times the human oral therapeutic dose in a 50 kg patient) was unassociated with evidence of carcinogenic potential. Neither was there evidence of carcinogenic potential when milrinone was orally administered to rats at doses up to 5 mg/kg/day (about 6 times the human oral therapeutic dose) for twenty-four months or at 25 mg/kg/day (about 30 times the human oral therapeutic dose) for up to 18 months in males and 20 months in females. Whereas the Chinese Hamster Ovary Chromosome Aberration Assay was positive in the presence of a metabolic activation system, results from the Ames Test, the Mouse Lymphoma Assay, the Micronucleus Test, and the in vivo Rat Bone Marrow Metaphase Analysis indicated an absence of mutagenic potential. In reproductive performance studies in rats, milrinone had no effect on male or female fertility at oral doses up to 32 mg/kg/day.
  • Animal Toxicity
  • Oral and intravenous administration of toxic dosages of milrinone to rats and dogs resulted in myocardial degeneration/fibrosis and endocardial hemorrhage, principally affecting the left ventricular papillary muscles. Coronary vascular lesions characterized by periarterial edema and inflammation have been observed in dogs only. The myocardial/endocardial changes are similar to those produced by beta-adrenergic receptor agonists such as isoproterenol, while the vascular changes are similar to those produced by minoxidil and hydralazine. Doses within the recommended clinical dose range (up to 1.13 mg/kg/day) for congestive heart failure patients have not produced significant adverse effects in animals.

Clinical Studies

There is limited information regarding Clinical Studies of Milrinone in the drug label.

How Supplied

  • Milrinone Lactate Injection is supplied as 10 mL (1 mg/mL) NDC 55390-019-10, box of 10; 20 mL (1 mg/mL) NDC 55390-020-10, box of 10; and 50 mL (1 mg/mL) NDC 55390-021-01, individually-boxed, single-dose vials containing a sterile, clear, colorless to pale yellow solution. Each mL contains milrinone lactate equivalent to 1 mg milrinone.
  • Discard unused portion after initial use. Store at controlled room temperature 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F). Avoid freezing.
  • Exposure of pharmaceutical products to heat should be minimized. Avoid excessive heat. Protect from freezing.

Storage

There is limited information regarding Milrinone Storage in the drug label.

Images

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Patient Counseling Information

There is limited information regarding Patient Counseling Information of Milrinone in the drug label.

Precautions with Alcohol

  • Alcohol-Milrinone interaction has not been established. Talk to your doctor about the effects of taking alcohol with this medication.

Brand Names

Look-Alike Drug Names

Drug Shortage Status

Price

References

The contents of this FDA label are provided by the National Library of Medicine.

  1. Milfred-LaForest, S. K. (1999-10-15). "Tolerability of extended duration intravenous milrinone in patients hospitalized for advanced heart failure and the usefulness of uptitration of oral angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors". The American Journal of Cardiology. 84 (8): 894–899. ISSN 0002-9149. PMID 10532506. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (help)
  2. Barton, P. (1996-05). "Hemodynamic effects of i.v. milrinone lactate in pediatric patients with septic shock. A prospective, double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, interventional study". Chest. 109 (5): 1302–1312. ISSN 0012-3692. PMID 8625683. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (help); Check date values in: |date= (help)
  3. "MILRINONE LACTATE injection".
  4. "http://www.ismp.org". External link in |title= (help)

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