M-mode echo: principles and classic findings

Jump to: navigation, search

WikiDoc Resources for M-mode echo: principles and classic findings

Articles

Most recent articles on M-mode echo: principles and classic findings

Most cited articles on M-mode echo: principles and classic findings

Review articles on M-mode echo: principles and classic findings

Articles on M-mode echo: principles and classic findings in N Eng J Med, Lancet, BMJ

Media

Powerpoint slides on M-mode echo: principles and classic findings

Images of M-mode echo: principles and classic findings

Photos of M-mode echo: principles and classic findings

Podcasts & MP3s on M-mode echo: principles and classic findings

Videos on M-mode echo: principles and classic findings

Evidence Based Medicine

Cochrane Collaboration on M-mode echo: principles and classic findings

Bandolier on M-mode echo: principles and classic findings

TRIP on M-mode echo: principles and classic findings

Clinical Trials

Ongoing Trials on M-mode echo: principles and classic findings at Clinical Trials.gov

Trial results on M-mode echo: principles and classic findings

Clinical Trials on M-mode echo: principles and classic findings at Google

Guidelines / Policies / Govt

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse on M-mode echo: principles and classic findings

NICE Guidance on M-mode echo: principles and classic findings

NHS PRODIGY Guidance

FDA on M-mode echo: principles and classic findings

CDC on M-mode echo: principles and classic findings

Books

Books on M-mode echo: principles and classic findings

News

M-mode echo: principles and classic findings in the news

Be alerted to news on M-mode echo: principles and classic findings

News trends on M-mode echo: principles and classic findings

Commentary

Blogs on M-mode echo: principles and classic findings

Definitions

Definitions of M-mode echo: principles and classic findings

Patient Resources / Community

Patient resources on M-mode echo: principles and classic findings

Discussion groups on M-mode echo: principles and classic findings

Patient Handouts on M-mode echo: principles and classic findings

Directions to Hospitals Treating M-mode echo: principles and classic findings

Risk calculators and risk factors for M-mode echo: principles and classic findings

Healthcare Provider Resources

Symptoms of M-mode echo: principles and classic findings

Causes & Risk Factors for M-mode echo: principles and classic findings

Diagnostic studies for M-mode echo: principles and classic findings

Treatment of M-mode echo: principles and classic findings

Continuing Medical Education (CME)

CME Programs on M-mode echo: principles and classic findings

International

M-mode echo: principles and classic findings en Espanol

M-mode echo: principles and classic findings en Francais

Business

M-mode echo: principles and classic findings in the Marketplace

Patents on M-mode echo: principles and classic findings

Experimental / Informatics

List of terms related to M-mode echo: principles and classic findings

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]

Associate Editor-In-Chief: Cafer Zorkun, M.D., Ph.D. [2]



Overview

One-dimensional or M-mode echocardiography is one beam of ultrasound directed toward the heart.

Historical Perspectives

  • One of the first modes available
  • Excellent resolution

Keys to interpretation

  • What structure is being imaged?
  • Where is the cursor?
  • Size
  • Septum in HOCM
  • Timing
  • Tamponade - diastolic collapse
  • Density
  • Myxomatous leaflets, masses

Technology

A single crystal rapidly alternates between transmission and receiver modes with rapid updating result, rapidly moving structures (eg, valve leaflets) can be monitored for their characteristic motion very high temporal resolution

Specific Structures

Aortic Valve M-mode Analysis

  • During systole do the aortic valve leaflets oppose the aorta?
  • Are the leaflets thick and calcified (bright)?
  • Possible to have normal appearance on m-mode if non-calcific
  • Are leaflets open throughout systole - HOCM, low-output state
Aortic M-Mode

Mitral Valve M-mode Analysis

  • Anterior leaflet with E/A appearance of diastology
  • Decreased EF slope in MS
  • Scalloping of leaflet tip in end systole in prolapse
Mitral M-Mode

Ventricular M-mode

  • Ventricular Wall Thickness
  • Ventricular Chamber Size
  • Intraventricular Masses
Ventricular M-Mode

M Mode Pathologic States

M Mode in Aortic Stenosis

  • Thickened, calcified leaflets
  • Dense, persistent echoes replacing the normal motion patterns
  • Post-stenotic aortic root dilation (> 35mm)
  • LVH
  • Eccentrically placed diastolic closure line (BAV)
Aortic Stenosis M Mode

M Mode in Mitral Valve Prolapse

  • Systolic bowing of the posterior mitral valve leaflet
MVP M Mode

M Mode in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

  • Septal hypertrophy
  • Systolic anterior motion (SAM) of the anterior mitral valve leaflet
  • Mid-systolic (premature) closure of the aortic valve due to outflow track obstruction
HOCM M Mode
HOCM Mid Systolic AV Closure


HOCM M Mode

M Mode in Mitral Stenosis

  • Leaflet tips bright (calcified) and thickened
  • E/F slope decreased
Mitral Stenosis M Mode

M Mode in Tamponade

  • Diastolic collapse of the right ventricle
Tamponade M Mode


Tamponade M Mode

M Mode Aortic Regurgitation

  • Increased duration between E and A peaks
  • Fluttering of the anterior mitral valve leaflet due to AI jet turbulence
  • Clinical setting to decide mechanism
Aortic Regurgitation M Mode

Other M Mode Findings

B Bump

  • Elevated left ventricular end diastolic pressure
B Bump

M Mode in Endocarditis

  • Thickened leaflets
  • Good motion
  • Mass
  • Clinical scenario likely to give clue - dialysis patient, etc.
Aortic Valve Endocarditis M Mode

Left Atrial Myxoma

  • Bright hyperdensity in mitral orifice throughout cardiac cycle
  • Functional MS
Left Atrial Myxoma M Mode

Pulmonary Hypertension

  • M-mode of pulmonary valve - W appearance indicates elevated pulmonary pressures


Hypertensive Heart Disease

Hypertensive Heart Disease M Mode
|-

Mitral Stenosis

Mitral Stenosis M Mode

Mitral Valve Prolapse

MItral Valve Prolapse.jpg M Mode

Mitral Regurgitation

Flail Posterior Mitral Leaflet M Mode

Linked-in.jpg