List of autoimmune diseases
Autoimmune diseases arise from an overactive immune response of the body against substances and tissues normally present in the body. In other words, the body attacks its own cells. Today there are more than 40 human diseases classified as either definite or probable autoimmune diseases, and they affect 5% to 7% of the population. Almost all autoimmune diseases appear without warning or apparent cause, and most patients suffer from fatigue.
The causes of autoimmune diseases are still obscure: Some are thought to be either examples of or precipitated by diseases of affluence. For example, arthritis and obesity are acknowledged to be related, and the World Health Organisation states that arthritis is most common in developed countries. Most autoimmune diseases are probably the result of multiple circumstances, for example, a genetic predisposition triggered by an infection.
Women tend to be affected more often by autoimmune disorders; nearly 79% of autoimmune disease patients in the USA are women. Also they tend to appear during or shortly after puberty. It is not known why this is the case, although hormone levels have been shown to affect the severity of some autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis . Other causes may include the presence of fetal cells in the maternal bloodstream. 
Diseases with a complete or partial autoimmune etiology:
The "Mesh" column lists those conditions that are classified as autoimmune by the MeSH system.
|Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)||yes||G04.0||is a form of encephalitis caused by an autoimmune reaction and typically occurring a few days or weeks after a viral infection or a vaccination.|
|Addison's disease||yes||E27||is often caused by autoimmune destruction of the adrenal cortex.|
|Ankylosing spondylitis||yes||M08.1, M45.||is a chronic, painful, progressive inflammatory arthritis primarily affecting spine and sacroiliac joints, causing eventual fusion of the spine.|
|Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS)||yes||D68.8||affects the blood-clotting process. It causes blood clots to form in veins and/or arteries.|
|Aplastic anemia||no||D60||is often caused by an autoimmune attack on the bone marrow.|
|Autoimmune hepatitis||no||K75.9||is a disorder wherein the liver is the target of the body's own immune system.|
|Autoimmune Oophoritis||no||N70||is a disorder in which the immune system attacks the female reproductive organs.|
|Celiac disease||no||K90.0||is a disease characterized by chronic inflammation of the proximal portion of the small intestine caused by exposure to certain dietary gluten proteins.|
|Crohn's disease||no||K50||is a form of inflammatory bowel disease characterized by chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract. Major symptoms include abdominal pain and diarrhea. There is also evidence supporting the theory that Crohn's Disease is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis.|
|Diabetes mellitus type 1||yes||E10||when it is characterized by a deficiency or absence of insulin production (Type I), is often the consequence of an autoimmune attack on the insulin-producing beta cells in the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas.|
|Gestational pemphigoid||no||O26.4||is a pregnancy-related blistering condition where autoantibodies are directed against the skin.|
|Goodpasture's syndrome||yes||M31.0||is a disease characterized by rapid destruction of the kidneys and hemorrhaging of the lungs through autoimmune reaction against an antigen found in both organs.|
|Graves' disease||yes||E05.0||is the most common form of hyperthyroidism, and is caused by anti-thyroid antibodies that have the effect of stimulating (agonist) the thyroid into overproduction of thyroid hormone.|
|Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS)||yes||G61.0||is an acquired immune-mediated inflammatory disorder of the peripheral nervous system (i.e., not the brain and spinal column). It is also called acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, acute idiopathic polyradiculoneuritis, acute idiopathic polyneuritis and Landry's ascending paralysis.|
|Hashimoto's disease||yes||E06.3||is a common form of hypothyroidism, characterised by initial inflammation of the thyroid, and, later, dysfunction and goiter. There are several characteristic antibodies (e.g., anti-thyroglobulin).|
|Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura||yes||D69.3||is an autoimmune disease where the body produces anti-platelet antibodies resulting in a low platelet count|
|Kawasaki's Disease||no||M30.3||is often caused by an autoimmune attack on the arteries around the heart.|
|Lupus erythematosus||yes||L93, M32||is a chronic (long-lasting) autoimmune disease wherein the immune system, for unknown reasons, becomes hyperactive and attacks normal tissue. This attack results in inflammation and brings about symptoms. This is a "Non-organ-specific" type of autoimmune disease.|
|Multiple sclerosis||yes||G35||is a disorder of the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) characterised by decreased nerve function due to myelin loss and secondary axonal damage.|
|Myasthenia gravis||yes||G70.0||is a disorder of neuromuscular transmission leading to fluctuating weakness and fatigue. Weakness is caused by circulating antibodies that block (antagonist) acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction.|
|Opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome (OMS)||n/a||n/a||is a neurological disorder that appears to the result of an autoimmune attack on the nervous system. Symptoms include opsoclonus, myoclonus, ataxia, intention tremor, dysphasia, dysarthria, mutism, hypotonia, lethargy, irritability or malaise. About half of all OMS cases occur in association with neuroblastoma.|
|Optic neuritis||no||H46||is an inflammation of the optic nerve that may cause a complete or partial loss of vision.|
|Ord's thyroiditis||n/a||n/a||is a thyroiditis similar to Hashimoto's disease, except that the thyroid is reduced in size. In Europe, this form of thyroid inflammation is more common than Hashimoto's disease.|
|Pemphigus||yes||L10||is an autoimmune disorder that causes blistering and raw sores on skin and mucous membranes.|
|Pernicious anaemia||no||D51.0||is an autoimmune disorder characterised by anaemia due to malabsorption of vitamin B12|
|Polyarthritis in dogs||n/a||n/a||is an immune reaction severely affecting the joints of dogs. Although rare and of unknown cause it can render a dog immobile even at a very young age. Treatment includes cortisone-type drugs.|
|Primary biliary cirrhosis||no||K74.3||appears to be an autoimmune disease that affects the biliary epithelial cells (BECs) of the small bile duct in the liver. Although the cause is yet to be determined, most of the patients (>90%) appear to have auto-mitochondrial antibodies (AMAs) against pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC), an enzyme that is found in the mitochondria.|
|Rheumatoid arthritis||yes||M05-M06||is an autoimmune disorder that causes the body's immune system to attack the bone joints.|
|Reiter's syndrome||no||M02||seems to be an autoimmune attack on various body systems in response to a bacterial infection and the body's confusion over the HLA-B27 marker|
|Sjögren's syndrome||yes||M35.0||is an autoimmune disorder in which immune cells attack and destroy the exocrine glands that produce tears and saliva.|
|Takayasu's arteritis||no||M31.4||is a disorder that results in the narrowing of the lumen of arteries.|
|Temporal arteritis (also known as "giant cell arteritis")||yes||M31.5||is an inflammation of blood vessels, most commonly the large and medium arteries of the head. Untreated, the disorder can lead to significant vision loss.|
|Warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia||n/a||D59.1||is a disorder characterized by IgM attack against red blood cells|
|Wegener's granulomatosis||no||M31.3||is a form of vasculitis that affects the lungs, kidneys and other organs.|
Diseases suspected or theorized to be linked to autoimmunity are:
- Hyland KV, Engman DM (2006). "Further thoughts on where we stand on the autoimmunity hypothesis of Chagas disease". Trends Parasitol. 22 (3): 101–2, author reply 103. doi:10.1016/j.pt.2006.01.001. PMID 16446117.
- Gleicher N, el-Roeiy A, Confino E, Friberg J (1987). "Is endometriosis an autoimmune disease?". Obstetrics and gynecology. 70 (1): 115–22. PMID 3110710.
- "Clinical Trial: Etanercept in Hidradenitis Suppurativa". Retrieved 2007-07-08.
- Kárpáti F, Dénes L, Büttner K (1975). "[Interstitial cystitis=autoimmune cyatitis? Interstitial as a participating disease in lupus erythematosus]". Zeitschrift für Urologie und Nephrologie (in German). 68 (9): 633–9. PMID 1227191.
- Takehara K, Sato S (2005). "Localized scleroderma is an autoimmune disorder". Rheumatology (Oxford, England). 44 (3): 274–9. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/keh487. PMID 15561734.
- Maddison P (2006). "Neuromyotonia". Clinical neurophysiology : official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. 117 (10): 2118–27. doi:10.1016/j.clinph.2006.03.008. PMID 16843723.
- Carlander, B., Eliaou J.F., Billiard M. (1993). "Autoimmune hypothesis in narcolepsy". Neurophysiol. Clin. 23.
- Eaton WW, Byrne M, Ewald H; et al. (2006). "Association of schizophrenia and autoimmune diseases: linkage of Danish national registers". The American journal of psychiatry. 163 (3): 521–8. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.163.3.521. PMID 16513876.
- Jones AL, Mowry BJ, Pender MP, Greer JM (2005). "Immune dysregulation and self-reactivity in schizophrenia: do some cases of schizophrenia have an autoimmune basis?". Immunol. Cell Biol. 83 (1): 9–17. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1711.2005.01305.x. PMID 15661036.
- Strous RD, Shoenfeld Y (2006). "Schizophrenia, autoimmunity and immune system dysregulation: a comprehensive model updated and revisited". J. Autoimmun. 27 (2): 71–80. doi:10.1016/j.jaut.2006.07.006. PMID 16997531.
- "Questions and Answers about Vitiligo". Retrieved 2007-08-06.
- "A New Gene Linked to Vitiligo and Susceptibility to Autoimmune Disorders - Journal Watch Dermatology". Retrieved 2007-08-06.