Lipoid pneumonia risk factors

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Ramyar Ghandriz MD[2]


Lipoid pneumonia pathogenicity is because of lipid aspiration. Common risk factors in the development of aspiration pneumonia include dysphagia, swallowing dysfunction, altered mental status, COPD, and hospitalization. Less common risk factors in the development of aspiration pneumonia include medications, esophageal motility disorders, vomiting, enteral feeding, oropharyngeal colonization, male sex, and smoking.

Risk Factors

Common Risk Factors

  • Common risk factors of developmentin lipoid pneumonia:[4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12]
    • The aspiration or inhalation of fatty substances is a central causative factor for exogenous lipoid pneumonia.
    • Trivial habits such as use of oil based laxatives, lip balm, lip gloss and petroleum jelly.
    • Siphoning of various mineral oils (e.g., diesel) from containers.
    • Traditional folk remedies such as the use of oily nasal drops.
    • Forceful animal fat feeding, such as ‘ghee’, in children to establish regular bowel habits.
    • Trans nasal prescriptions of oil based drugs to treat cough and cold.
    • Iatrogenic complication following bronchography using the dye propyliodone.

Less Common Risk Factors


  1. DiBardino, David M.; Wunderink, Richard G. (2015). "Aspiration pneumonia: A review of modern trends". Journal of Critical Care. 30 (1): 40–48. doi:10.1016/j.jcrc.2014.07.011. ISSN 0883-9441.
  2. Taylor, Joanne K.; Fleming, Gillian B.; Singanayagam, Aran; Hill, Adam T.; Chalmers, James D. (2013). "Risk Factors for Aspiration in Community-acquired Pneumonia: Analysis of a Hospitalized UK Cohort". The American Journal of Medicine. 126 (11): 995–1001. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2013.07.012. ISSN 0002-9343.
  3. Hu, Xiaowen; Lee, Joyce S.; Pianosi, Paolo T.; Ryu, Jay H. (2015). "Aspiration-Related Pulmonary Syndromes". Chest. 147 (3): 815–823. doi:10.1378/chest.14-1049. ISSN 0012-3692.
  4. Gondouin, A.; Manzoni, Ph.; Ranfaing, E.; Brun, J.; Cadranel, J.; Sadoun, D.; Cordier, J.F.; Depierre, A.; Dalphin, J.C. (1996). "Exogenous lipid pneumonia: a retrospective multicentre study of 44 cases in France". European Respiratory Journal. 9 (7): 1463–1469. doi:10.1183/09031936.96.09071463. ISSN 0000-0000.
  5. Spickard, Anderson (1994). "Exogenous Lipoid Pneumonia". Archives of Internal Medicine. 154 (6): 686. doi:10.1001/archinte.1994.00420060122013. ISSN 0003-9926.
  6. Seaton, A. (2010). "Lipoid pneumonia in a fire breather". Occupational Medicine. 60 (5): 406–406. doi:10.1093/occmed/kqq094. ISSN 0962-7480.
  7. Kitchen, J M; O'Brien, D E; McLaughlin, A M (2008). "Perils of fire eating". Thorax. 63 (5): 401–401. doi:10.1136/thx.2007.090001. ISSN 0040-6376.
  8. Meltzer, E.; Guranda, L.; Perelman, M.; Krupsky, M.; Vassilenko, L.; Sidi, Y. (2005). "Lipoid pneumonia: A preventable form of drug-induced lung injury". European Journal of Internal Medicine. 16 (8): 615–617. doi:10.1016/j.ejim.2005.06.014. ISSN 0953-6205.
  9. Gurell, Michael N.; Kottmann, R. Matthew; Xu, Haodong; Sime, Patricia J. (2008). "Exogenous Lipoid Pneumonia: An Unexpected Complication of Substance Abuse". Annals of Internal Medicine. 149 (5): 364. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-149-5-200809020-00027. ISSN 0003-4819.
  10. Hadda, Vijay; Khilnani, Gopi C; Bhalla, Ashu S; Mathur, Sandeep (2009). "Lipoid pneumonia presenting as non resolving community acquired pneumonia: a case report". Cases Journal. 2 (1): 9332. doi:10.1186/1757-1626-2-9332. ISSN 1757-1626.
  11. McDonald, John R.; Hodgson, Corrin H. (1954). "The Problem of Lipoid Pneumonia or Granuloma of the Lung". Medical Clinics of North America. 38 (4): 989–996. doi:10.1016/S0025-7125(16)34825-8. ISSN 0025-7125.
  12. Wolfson, B. J.; Allen, J. L.; Panitch, H. B.; Karmazin, N. (1989). "Lipid aspiration pneumonia due to gastroesophageal reflux". Pediatric Radiology. 19 (8): 545–547. doi:10.1007/BF02389570. ISSN 0301-0449.