Klinefelter's syndrome natural history, complications and prognosis
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Natural History, Complications and Prognosis
In these patients, GSTs usually contain nonseminomatous elements, present at an earlier age, and seldom are testicular in location.
The syndrome increases the risk of:
- Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
- Autoimmune disorders such as lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, and Sjogren syndrome
- Breast cancer
- 50 times greater risk of extragonadal germ cell tumor (a rare tumor)
- Learning disabilities, despite normal or high IQ
- Lung disease
- Varicose veins
- Most patients have a normal, productive life.
- Mediastinal germ cell tumor in a child with precocious puberty and Klinefelter syndrome. Gregory G. Bebb, Frederic W. Grannis, Jr, Isaac B. Paz, Marilyn L. Slovak, Robert Chilcote. Ann Thorac Surg 1998;66:547-548. [http://ats.ctsnetjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/66/2/547 Online}