Hemolytic-uremic syndrome epidemiology and demographics

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Sogand Goudarzi, MD [2], Anila Hussain, MD [3]


The highest proportion of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) cases (15.3%) occurred among children aged <5 years. HUS affects female more than male and white race more than other races. Mortality is more commonly seen in elderly patients in which disease is less common but more dangerous.The incidence of atypical HUS in The United States of America is approximately two per million.

Epidemiology and Demographics


  • In children less than 5 years of age, the incidence of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is approximately 8.5 per 100,000.[1]
  • The incidence of atypical HUS in the United States of America is approximately 0.2 per 100,00 individuals.[2]

Mortality rate


  • HUS commonly affects individuals younger than 5 years of age.[5]


  • HUS usually affects individuals of the White race (82%).[6]


  • HUS affects female more than male. Approximately 59% of affected individuals are female.[6]


  • In the United States and Western Europe, the reported annual incidence of STEC (Shiga Toxin-Producing E.coli) HUS is approximately two to three per 100,000 children less than five years of age.[7]
  • Data on paediatric HUS established for some European countries (France, Germany, Austria and Italy) show an estimated prevalence of atypical HUS of 7 per million children in the whole of the European Community.[8]


  1. Mele, Caterina; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Noris, Marina (2014). "Hemolytic uremic syndrome". Seminars in Immunopathology. 36 (4): 399–420. doi:10.1007/s00281-014-0416-x. ISSN 1863-2297.
  2. Constantinescu AR, Bitzan M, Weiss LS, Christen E, Kaplan BS, Cnaan A; et al. (2004). "Non-enteropathic hemolytic uremic syndrome: causes and short-term course". Am J Kidney Dis. 43 (6): 976–82. PMID 15168377.
  3. Gould LH, Demma L, Jones TF, Hurd S, Vugia DJ, Smith K; et al. (2009). "Hemolytic uremic syndrome and death in persons with Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection, foodborne diseases active surveillance network sites, 2000-2006". Clin Infect Dis. 49 (10): 1480–5. doi:10.1086/644621. PMID 19827953.
  4. Gregory Hall, Shinichiro Kurosawa & Deborah J. Stearns-Kurosawa (2017). "Shiga Toxin Therapeutics: Beyond Neutralization". Toxins. 9 (9). doi:10.3390/toxins9090291. PMID 28925976. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  5. 5.0 5.1 Karpman, Diana; Loos, Sebastian; Tati, Ramesh; Arvidsson, Ida (2017). "Haemolytic uraemic syndrome". Journal of Internal Medicine. 281 (2): 123–148. doi:10.1111/joim.12546. ISSN 0954-6820.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Deirdra R. Terrell, Sara K. Vesely, Johanna A. Kremer Hovinga, Bernhard Lammle & James N. George (2010). "Different disparities of gender and race among the thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and hemolytic-uremic syndromes". American journal of hematology. 85 (11): 844–847. doi:10.1002/ajh.21833. PMID 20799358. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  7. Noris M, Remuzzi G (2005). "Hemolytic uremic syndrome". J Am Soc Nephrol. 16 (4): 1035–50. doi:10.1681/ASN.2004100861. PMID 15728781.
  8. Taylor CM, Machin S, Wigmore SJ, Goodship TH, working party from the Renal Association, the British Committee for Standards in Haematology and the British Transplantation Society (2010). "Clinical practice guidelines for the management of atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome in the United Kingdom". Br J Haematol. 148 (1): 37–47. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2141.2009.07916.x. PMID 19821824.

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