Heat stroke epidemiology and demographics

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1];Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Seyedmahdi Pahlavani, M.D. [2],Usama Talib, BSc, MD [3]

Overview

The United States Centers for Disease Control (CDC) reports an average of 9000 cases per year among high school athletes. The highest incidence of heat stroke in athletes in the United States has been reported among football players. Young athletes are more prone to exertional heat stroke while, classic heat stroke is more common among elderly. Men are more affected by heat stroke than women.

Epidemiology and demographics

  • The United States Centers for Disease Control report a weighted average of 9237 cases of exercise heat stroke among high school athletes per year for the period 2005 to 2009.[1]
  • Its incidence has been increased among the United States military personnel in 2014 compared to 2013 despite preventive measures.

Incidence

  • In Saudi Arabia, the incidence varies seasonally, from 22 to 250 cases per 100,000 population.[2]
  • Epidemiologic studies showed an incidence of 17.6 to 26.5 cases per 100,000 population in urban areas of the United States during heat waves.[3]
  • The highest incidence of exertional heat stroke in athletes in the United States is among football players and it's approximately 4.5 cases per 100,000 athlete exposures.[1]
  • There are various reports of death among American football players ranged from 1 to 31 from 1995 till 2008.

Age

Exertional heat stroke

Exertional heat stroke is more common in age group 15-50 years.

Classic heat stroke

Classic heat stroke is more common in early childhood and elderly.

Sex

Exertional heat stroke is more common among men than in women.

Race

Heat stroke is more common among Asian/Pacific Islander than other ethnicities.

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 "Heat illness among high school athletes --- United States, 2005-2009". MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 59 (32): 1009–13. 2010. PMID 20724966.
  2. Gatrad AR, Sheikh A (2005). "Hajj: journey of a lifetime". BMJ. 330 (7483): 133–7. doi:10.1136/bmj.330.7483.133. PMC 544433. PMID 15649928.
  3. Jones TS, Liang AP, Kilbourne EM, Griffin MR, Patriarca PA, Wassilak SG, Mullan RJ, Herrick RF, Donnell HD, Choi K, Thacker SB (1982). "Morbidity and mortality associated with the July 1980 heat wave in St Louis and Kansas City, Mo". JAMA. 247 (24): 3327–31. PMID 7087075.

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