Goiter risk factors

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Aravind Reddy Kothagadi M.B.B.S[2]


Risk factors in the development of goiter include non-iodized salt, age over 45 years, female gender, drugs and radiation therapies.

Risk Factors

Risk factors in the development of goiter include the following:[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10]

Common Risk Factors

Less Common Risk Factors

  • Less common risk factors in the development of goiter include:
    • Family history of autoimmune disorders, [11]
    • Radiation leak and exposure to hazardous radiations as a result of nuclear reactor accidents, [12]
    • Cigarette smoking, [13][14]
    • Emotional stress, [15]
    • Infections (rare), [15]
    • Goitrogenic foods: [16]
      • Higher risk (higher amounts of goitrogens):
        • Cabbage, cauliflower, bok choy, broccoli, brussel sprouts, kale, kohlrabi, mustard and mustard greens, radishes, rutabagas, soybeans and turnips.
      • Lower risk (smaller amounts of goitrogens):
        • Fruits (peaches, pears, strawberries), nuts (peanuts, pine nuts), bamboo shoots, sweet potatoes and spinach.


  1. Knudsen, Nils; Laurberg, Peter; Perrild, Hans; Bülow, Inge; Ovesen, Lars; Jørgensen, Torben (2002). "Risk Factors for Goiter and Thyroid Nodules". Thyroid. 12 (10): 879–888. doi:10.1089/105072502761016502. ISSN 1050-7256.
  2. Rı́os, A; Rodrı́guez, J.M; Canteras, M; Galindo, P.J; Balsalobre, M.D; Parrilla, P (2004). "Risk factors for malignancy in multinodular goitres". European Journal of Surgical Oncology (EJSO). 30 (1): 58–62. doi:10.1016/j.ejso.2003.10.021. ISSN 0748-7983.
  3. Gur, E. (2003). "Prevalence and Risk Factors of Iodine Deficiency among Schoolchildren". Journal of Tropical Pediatrics. 49 (3): 168–171. doi:10.1093/tropej/49.3.168. ISSN 0142-6338.
  4. Shakhtarin, VV; Tsyb, AF; Stepanenko, VF; Orlov, MY; Kopecky, KJ; Davis, S (2003). "Iodine deficiency, radiation dose, and the risk of thyroid cancer among children and adolescents in the Bryansk region of Russia following the Chernobyl power station accident". International Journal of Epidemiology. 32 (4): 584–591. doi:10.1093/ije/dyg205. ISSN 1464-3685.
  5. Patel NR, Tamara LA, Lee H (2016). "99mTc Sestamibi Thyroid Scan in Amiodarone-Induced Thyrotoxicosis Type I". Clin Nucl Med. 41 (7): 566–7. doi:10.1097/RLU.0000000000001243. PMID 27163459.
  6. Lane RJ, Clark F, McCollum JK (1977). "Oxyphenbutazone-induced goitre". Postgrad Med J. 53 (616): 93–5. PMC 2496610. PMID 141661.
  7. Kobayashi M, Yagasaki H, Saito T, Nemoto A, Naito A, Sugita K (2017). "Fetal goitrous hypothyroidism treated by intra-amniotic levothyroxine administration: case report and review of the literature". J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab. 30 (9): 1001–1005. doi:10.1515/jpem-2017-0094. PMID 28771438.
  8. McLaren EH, Alexander WD (1979). "Goitrogens". Clin Endocrinol Metab. 8 (1): 129–44. PMID 85506.
  9. Studer H, Kohler H, Bürgi H, Dorner E, Forster R, Rohner R (1970). "Goiters with high radioiodine uptake and other characteristics of iodine deficiency in rats chronically treated with aminoglutethimide". Endocrinology. 87 (5): 905–14. doi:10.1210/endo-87-5-905. PMID 4098398.
  10. "Reorganized text". JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 141 (5): 428. 2015. doi:10.1001/jamaoto.2015.0540. PMID 25996397.
  11. Manji N, Carr-Smith JD, Boelaert K, Allahabadia A, Armitage M, Chatterjee VK, Lazarus JH, Pearce SH, Vaidya B, Gough SC, Franklyn JA (2006). "Influences of age, gender, smoking, and family history on autoimmune thyroid disease phenotype". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 91 (12): 4873–80. doi:10.1210/jc.2006-1402. PMID 16968788.
  12. Jereczek-Fossa BA, Alterio D, Jassem J, Gibelli B, Tradati N, Orecchia R (2004). "Radiotherapy-induced thyroid disorders". Cancer Treat. Rev. 30 (4): 369–84. doi:10.1016/j.ctrv.2003.12.003. PMID 15145511.
  13. Pontikides N, Krassas GE (2002). "Influence of cigarette smoking on thyroid function, goiter formation and autoimmune thyroid disorders". Hormones (Athens). 1 (2): 91–8. PMID 17110360.
  14. Sawicka-Gutaj N, Gutaj P, Sowiński J, Wender-Ożegowska E, Czarnywojtek A, Brązert J, Ruchała M (2014). "Influence of cigarette smoking on thyroid gland--an update". Endokrynol Pol. 65 (1): 54–62. doi:10.5603/EP.2014.0008. PMID 24549603.
  15. 15.0 15.1 Brix TH, Hegedüs L (2000). "Genetic and environmental factors in the aetiology of simple goitre". Ann. Med. 32 (3): 153–6. PMID 10821321.
  16. FERTMAN MB, CURTIS GM (1951). "Foods and the genesis of goiter". J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 11 (11): 1361–82. doi:10.1210/jcem-11-11-1361. PMID 14880611.

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