Difluprednate

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Difluprednate
Adult Indications & Dosage
Pediatric Indications & Dosage
Contraindications
Warnings & Precautions
Adverse Reactions
Drug Interactions
Use in Specific Populations
Administration & Monitoring
Overdosage
Pharmacology
Clinical Studies
How Supplied
Images
Patient Counseling Information
Precautions with Alcohol
Brand Names
Look-Alike Names

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Vignesh Ponnusamy, M.B.B.S. [2]

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Overview

Difluprednate is a topical corticosteroid that is FDA approved for the treatment of inflammation and pain associated with ocular surgery and endogenous anterior uveitis. Common adverse reactions include raised intraocular pressure.

Adult Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Adult)

Ocular Surgery
  • Instill one drop into the conjunctival sac of the affected eye 4 times daily beginning 24 hours after surgery and continuing throughout the first 2 weeks of the postoperative period, followed by 2 times daily for a week and then a taper based on the response.
Endogenous Anterior Uveitis
  • Instill one drop into the conjunctival sac of the affected eye 4 times daily for 14 days followed by tapering as clinically indicated.

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Adult)

Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Guideline-Supported Use of Difluprednate in adult patients.

Non–Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Non–Guideline-Supported Use of Difluprednate in adult patients.

Pediatric Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Pediatric)

There is limited information regarding FDA-Labeled Use of Difluprednate in pediatric patients.

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Pediatric)

Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Guideline-Supported Use of Difluprednate in pediatric patients.

Non–Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Non–Guideline-Supported Use of Difluprednate in pediatric patients.

Contraindications

Warnings

Precautions

  • IOP Increase
  • Cataracts
  • Delayed Healing
  • The use of steroids after cataract surgery may delay healing and increase the incidence of bleb formation. In those diseases causing thinning of the cornea or sclera, perforations have been known to occur with the use of topical steroids. The initial prescription and renewal of the medication order beyond 28 days should be made by a physician only after examination of the patient with the aid of magnification such as slit lamp biomicroscopy and, where appropriate, fluorescein staining.
  • Bacterial Infections
  • Prolonged use of corticosteroids may suppress the host response and thus increase the hazard of secondary ocular infections. In acute purulent conditions, steroids may mask infection or enhance existing infection. If signs and symptoms fail to improve after 2 days, the patient should be re-evaluated.
  • Viral Infections
  • Fungal Infections
  • Fungal infections of the cornea are particularly prone to develop coincidentally with long-term local steroid application. Fungus invasion must be considered in any persistent corneal ulceration where a steroid has been used or is in use. Fungal culture should be taken when appropriate.
  • Topical Ophthalmic Use Only
  • DUREZOL is not indicated for intraocular administration.
  • Contact Lens Wear
  • DUREZOL should not be instilled while wearing contact lenses. Remove contact lenses prior to instillation of DUREZOL. The preservative in DUREZOL may be absorbed by soft contact lenses. Lenses may be reinserted after 10 minutes following administration of DUREZOL.

Adverse Reactions

Clinical Trials Experience

  • Ocular Surgery
  • Ocular adverse reactions occurring in 5-15% of subjects in clinical studies with DUREZOL included corneal edema, ciliary and conjunctival hyperemia, eye pain, photophobia, posterior capsule opacification, anterior chamber cells, anterior chamber flare, conjunctival edema, and blepharitis. Other ocular adverse reactions occurring in 1-5% of subjects included reduced visual acuity, punctate keratitis, eye inflammation, and iritis. Ocular adverse reactions occurring in < 1% of subjects included application site discomfort or irritation, corneal pigmentation and striae, episcleritis, eye pruritis, eyelid irritation and crusting, foreign body sensation, increased lacrimation, macular edema, sclera hyperemia, and uveitis. Most of these reactions may have been the consequence of the surgical procedure.
  • Endogenous Anterior Uveitis
  • A total of 200 subjects participated in the clinical trials for endogenous anterior uveitis, of which 106 were exposed to DUREZOL. The most common adverse reactions of those exposed to DUREZOL occurring in 5-10% of subjects included blurred vision, eye irritation, eye pain, headache, increased IOP, iritis, limbal and conjunctival hyperemia, punctate keratitis, and uveitis. Adverse reactions occurring in 2-5% of subjects included anterior chamber flare, corneal edema, dry eye, iridocyclitis, photophobia, and reduced visual acuity.

Postmarketing Experience

There is limited information regarding Postmarketing Experience of Difluprednate in the drug label.

Drug Interactions

There is limited information regarding Difluprednate Drug Interactions in the drug label.

Use in Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category (FDA):

  • Pregnancy Category C
  • Difluprednate has been shown to be embryotoxic (decrease in embryonic body weight and a delay in embryonic ossification) and teratogenic (cleft palate and skeletal anomalies) when administered subcutaneously to rabbits during organogenesis at a dose of 1-10 mcg/kg/day. The no-observed-effect-level (NOEL) for these effects was 1 mcg/kg/day, and 10 mcg/kg/day was considered to be a teratogenic dose that was concurrently found in the toxic dose range for fetuses and pregnant females. Treatment of rats with 10 mcg/kg/day subcutaneously during organogenesis did not result in any reproductive toxicity, nor was it maternally toxic. At 100 mcg/kg/day after subcutaneous administration in rats, there was a decrease in fetal weights and delay in ossification, and effects on weight gain in the pregnant females. It is difficult to extrapolate these doses of difluprednate to maximum daily human doses of DUREZOL, since DUREZOL is administered topically with minimal systemic absorption, and difluprednate blood levels were not measured in the reproductive animal studies. However, since use of difluprednate during human pregnancy has not been evaluated and cannot rule out the possibility of harm, DUREZOL should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the embryo or fetus.


Pregnancy Category (AUS):

  • Australian Drug Evaluation Committee (ADEC) Pregnancy Category

There is no Australian Drug Evaluation Committee (ADEC) guidance on usage of Difluprednate in women who are pregnant.

Labor and Delivery

There is no FDA guidance on use of Difluprednate during labor and delivery.

Nursing Mothers

  • It is not known whether topical ophthalmic administration of corticosteroids could result in sufficient systemic absorption to produce detectable quantities in breast milk. Systemically administered corticosteroids appear in human milk and could suppress growth, interfere with endogenous corticosteroid production, or cause other untoward effects. Caution should be exercised when DUREZOL is administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use

  • DUREZOL was evaluated in a 3-month, multicenter, double-masked trial in 79 pediatric patients (39 DUREZOL; 40 prednisolone acetate) 0 to 3 years of age for the treatment of inflammation following cataract surgery. A similar safety profile was observed in pediatric patients comparing DUREZOL to prednisolone acetate ophthalmic suspension, 1%.

Geriatic Use

  • No overall differences in safety or effectiveness have been observed between elderly and younger patients.

Gender

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Difluprednate with respect to specific gender populations.

Race

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Difluprednate with respect to specific racial populations.

Renal Impairment

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Difluprednate in patients with renal impairment.

Hepatic Impairment

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Difluprednate in patients with hepatic impairment.

Females of Reproductive Potential and Males

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Difluprednate in women of reproductive potentials and males.

Immunocompromised Patients

There is no FDA guidance one the use of Difluprednate in patients who are immunocompromised.

Administration and Monitoring

Administration

  • Topical

Monitoring

There is limited information regarding Monitoring of Difluprednate in the drug label.

IV Compatibility

There is limited information regarding IV Compatibility of Difluprednate in the drug label.

Overdosage

Chronic Overdose

There is limited information regarding Chronic Overdose of Difluprednate in the drug label.

Pharmacology

Difluprednate00.png
Difluprednate
Systematic (IUPAC) name
[(6S,8S,9R,10S,11S,13S,14S,17R)-17-(2-acetyloxyacetyl)-6,9-difluoro-11-hydroxy-10,13-dimethyl-3-oxo-6,7,8,11,12,14,15,16-octahydrocyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-yl] butanoate
Identifiers
CAS number 23674-86-4
ATC code D07AC19
PubChem 32037
DrugBank DB06781
Chemical data
Formula C27H34F2O7 
Mol. mass 508.551
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability ?
Metabolism ?
Half life ?
Excretion ?
Therapeutic considerations
Licence data

US

Pregnancy cat.

?

Legal status

-only(US)

Routes topical dermatologic

Mechanism of Action

  • Corticosteroids inhibit the inflammatory response to a variety of inciting agents and may delay or slow healing. They inhibit edema, fibrin deposition, capillary dilation, leukocyte migration, capillary proliferation, fibroblast proliferation, deposition of collagen, and scar formation associated with inflammation. There is no generally accepted explanation for the mechanism of action of ocular corticosteroids. However, corticosteroids are thought to act by the induction of phospholipase A2 inhibitory proteins, collectively called lipocortins. It is postulated that these proteins control the biosynthesis of potent mediators of inflammation such as prostaglandins and leukotreines by inhibiting the release of their common precursor arachidonic acid. Arachidonic acid is released from membrane phospholipids by phospholipase A2.
  • Difluprednate is structurally similar to other corticosteroids.

Structure

  • DUREZOL (difluprednate ophthalmic emulsion) 0.05% is a sterile, topical anti-inflammatory corticosteroid for ophthalmic use. The chemical name is 6α,9difluoro-11β,17,21-trihydroxypregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione 21-acetate 17-butyrate (CAS number 23674-86-4). Difluprednate is represented by the following structural formula:
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • Difluprednate has a molecular weight of 508.56, and the empirical formula is C27H34F2O7.
  • Each mL contains: ACTIVE: difluprednate 0.5 mg (0.05%); INACTIVE: boric acid, castor oil, glycerin, polysorbate 80, water for injection, sodium acetate, sodium EDTA, sodium hydroxide (to adjust the pH to 5.2 to 5.8). The emulsion is essentially isotonic with a tonicity of 304 to 411 mOsm/kg. PRESERVATIVE: sorbic acid 0.1%.

Pharmacodynamics

There is limited information regarding Pharmacodynamics of Difluprednate in the drug label.

Pharmacokinetics

  • Difluprednate undergoes deacetylation in vivo to 6α, 9-difluoroprednisolone 17-butyrate (DFB), an active metabolite of difluprednate.
  • Clinical pharmacokinetic studies of difluprednate after repeat ocular instillation of 2 drops of difluprednate (0.01% or 0.05%) four times per day for 7 days showed that DFB levels in blood were below the quantification limit (50 ng/mL) at all time points for all subjects, indicating the systemic absorption of difluprednate after ocular instillation of DUREZOL is limited.

Nonclinical Toxicology

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, and Impairment of Fertility
  • Difluprednate was not genotoxic in vitro in the Ames test, and in cultured mammalian cells CHL/IU (a fibroblastic cell line derived from the lungs of newborn female Chinese hamsters). An in vivo micronucleus test of difluprednate in mice was also negative. Treatment of male and female rats with subcutaneous difluprednate up to 10 mcg/kg/day prior to and during mating did not impair fertility in either gender. Long term studies have not been conducted to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of difluprednate.
Animal Toxicology and/or Pharmacology
  • In multiple studies performed in rodents and non-rodents, subchronic and chronic toxicity tests of difluprednate showed systemic effects such as suppression of body weight gain; a decrease in lymphocyte count; atrophy of the lymphatic glands and adrenal gland; and for local effects, thinning of the skin; all of which were due to the pharmacologic action of the molecule and are well known glucocorticosteroid effects. Most, if not all of these effects were reversible after drug withdrawal. The NOEL for the subchronic and chronic toxicity tests were consistent between species and ranged from 1-1.25 mcg/kg/day.

Clinical Studies

  • Ocular Surgery
  • Clinical efficacy was evaluated in 2 randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trials in which subjects with an anterior chamber cell grade ≥ "2" (a cell count of 11 or higher) after cataract surgery were assigned to DUREZOL or placebo (vehicle) following surgery. One drop of DUREZOL or vehicle was self instilled either 2 times per day or 4 times per day for 14 days, beginning the day after surgery. The presence of complete clearing (a cell count of 0) was assessed 8 and 15 days post-surgery using a slit lamp binocular microscope. In the intent-to-treat analyses of both studies, a significant benefit was seen in the 4 times per day DUREZOL-treated group in ocular inflammation and reduction of pain when compared with placebo. The consolidated clinical trial results are provided below.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • Endogenous Anterior Uveitis
  • Clinical efficacy was evaluated in two randomized, double masked active controlled trials in which patients who presented with endogenous anterior uveitis were treated with either DUREZOL 4 times daily or prednisolone acetate ophthalmic suspension, 1%, 8 times daily for 14 days. Both studies demonstrated that DUREZOL was equally effective as prednisolone acetate ophthalmic suspension, 1% in treating subjects with endogenous anterior uveitis.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

How Supplied

  • DUREZOL (difluprednate ophthalmic emulsion) 0.05% is a sterile, aqueous topical ophthalmic emulsion supplied in an opaque plastic bottle with a controlled drop tip and a pink cap in the following sizes:
  • 5 mL in a 8 mL bottle (NDC 0065-9240-07)
  • 5 mL in a 7.5 mL bottle (NDC 0065-9240-05)
  • Storage and Handling
  • Store at 15-25°C (59-77°F). Do not freeze. Protect from light. When not in use, keep the bottles in the protective carton.

Storage

There is limited information regarding Difluprednate Storage in the drug label.

Images

Drug Images

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This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.

Package and Label Display Panel

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This image of the FDA label is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
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This image of the FDA label is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

Patient Counseling Information

  • Risk of Contamination
  • This product is sterile when packaged. Advise patients not to allow the dropper tip to touch any surface, as this may contaminate the emulsion.
  • Use of the same bottle for both eyes is not recommended with topical eye drops that are used in association with surgery.
  • Risk of Secondary Infection
  • If pain develops, or if redness, itching, or inflammation becomes aggravated, advise patients to consult a physician.
  • Contact Lens Wear
  • DUREZOL should not be instilled while wearing contact lenses. Advise patients to remove contact lenses prior to instillation of DUREZOL. The preservative in DUREZOL may be absorbed by soft contact lenses. Lenses may be reinserted after 10 minutes following administration of DUREZOL.

Precautions with Alcohol

  • Alcohol-Difluprednate interaction has not been established. Talk to your doctor about the effects of taking alcohol with this medication.

Brand Names

Look-Alike Drug Names

  • Durezol® — Durasal®[2]

Drug Shortage Status

Price

References

The contents of this FDA label are provided by the National Library of Medicine.

  1. "DUREZOL durezol emulsion".
  2. "http://www.ismp.org". External link in |title= (help)