Constipation On the Web
American Roentgen Ray Society Images of Constipation
Endoanal ultrasound may be helpful for diagnosing underlying diseases causing constipation, particularly sphincter pathologies. Findings on an ultrasound suggestive of sphincter disorders are decline in thickness, depth, and size of the sphincter muscle. Endoanal ultrasound findings are scored through Starck scoring system, based on thickness, depth, and size of the sphincter muscles. The sphincter abnormality is classified as small (score of 1-4), moderate (score of 5-7), or large (score of 8-16).
- Decline in thickness of the sphincter muscle
- Decline in depth of the sphincter muscle
- Decline in size of the sphincter muscle
Starck scoring system
- Endoanal ultrasound findings are scored through Starck scoring system, based on thickness, depth, and size of the sphincter muscle.
|Length of defect||None||≤1/2||>1/2||Whole|
|Depth of defect||None||Partial||Total||–|
|Size of defect||None||≤90°||91°-180°||>180°|
- Starck scoring system is used for both internal and external anal sphincters and ranges from 0-16 points.
- The sphincter abnormality is graded on the basis of points into following categories:
- Small: Score of 1-4
- Moderate: Score of 5-7
- Large: Score of 8-16
- Caldaro T, Romeo E, De Angelis P, Gambitta RA, Rea F, Torroni F, Foschia F, di Abriola GF, Dall'Oglio L (2012). "Three-dimensional endoanal ultrasound and anorectal manometry in children with anorectal malformations: new discoveries". J. Pediatr. Surg. 47 (5): 956–63. doi:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2012.01.051. PMID 22595581.
- Starck, M.; Bohe, M.; Valentin, L. (2003). "Results of endosonographic imaging of the anal sphincter 2-7 days after primary repair of third- or fourth-degree obstetric sphincter tears". Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology. 22 (6): 609–615. doi:10.1002/uog.920. ISSN 0960-7692.