Chronic bronchitis risk factors

Jump to: navigation, search

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Page

Bronchitis Main Page

Chronic bronchitis Microchapters

Home

Patient Information

Overview

Historical Perspective

Classification

Pathophysiology

Causes

Differentiating Chronic bronchitis from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors

Screening

Natural History, Complications and Prognosis

Diagnosis

History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings

Electrocardiogram

Chest X Ray

CT

Echocardiography or Ultrasound

Treatment

Medical Therapy

Lung Transplant

Primary Prevention

Secondary Prevention

Cost-Effectiveness of Therapy

Future or Investigational Therapies

Case Studies

Case #1

Chronic bronchitis risk factors On the Web

Most recent articles

Most cited articles

Review articles

CME Programs

Powerpoint slides

Images

American Roentgen Ray Society Images of Chronic bronchitis risk factors

All Images
X-rays
Echo & Ultrasound
CT Images
MRI

Ongoing Trials at Clinical Trials.gov

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse

NICE Guidance

FDA on Chronic bronchitis risk factors

CDC on Chronic bronchitis risk factors

Chronic bronchitis risk factors in the news

Blogs on Chronic bronchitis risk factors

Directions to Hospitals Treating Chronic bronchitis

Risk calculators and risk factors for Chronic bronchitis risk factors

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Seyedmahdi Pahlavani, M.D. [2]

Overview

Common risk factors in the development of chronic bronchitis include cigarette smoking, air pollution, genetic factors, increasing age, male gender, allergy, and repeated airway infections.

Risk Factors

The most potent risk factor for development of chronic bronchitis is smoking. Other risk factors include: environmental exposures, genetic susceptibility, air pollution and respiratory infections.

Cigarette smoking

Occupational exposure

  • Dusts, gases, fumes, or organic antigens can contribute to increased airways responsiveness.[3][2][4]

Genetic factors

  • Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is the leading genetic risk factor for developing chronic bronchitis.[3][2][5] Some novel risk factors such as, small nucleotide polymorphisms and gene clusters, are assumed to be involved in developing chronic airway diseases.[6]

Developmentally abnormal lungs

  • Frequent childhood infection may cause scarring of lungs, decrease elasticity, thereby increasing risk for COPD.


References

  1. PIERCE JA, HOCOTT JB, EBERT RV (1961). "The collagen and elastin content of the lung in emphysema". Ann. Intern. Med. 55: 210–22. PMID 13735539.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Raherison C, Girodet PO (2009). "Epidemiology of COPD". Eur Respir Rev. 18 (114): 213–21. doi:10.1183/09059180.00003609. PMID 20956146.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Mehta GR, Mohammed R, Sarfraz S, Khan T, Ahmed K, Villareal M, Martinez D, Iskander J, Mohammed R (2016). "Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A guide for the primary care physician". Dis Mon. 62 (6): 164–87. doi:10.1016/j.disamonth.2016.03.002. PMID 27087562.
  4. Jeffery PK (2000). "Comparison of the structural and inflammatory features of COPD and asthma. Giles F. Filley Lecture". Chest. 117 (5 Suppl 1): 251S–60S. PMID 10843939.
  5. Gadek JE, Fells GA, Crystal RG (1979). "Cigarette smoking induces functional antiprotease deficiency in the lower respiratory tract of humans". Science. 206 (4424): 1315–6. PMID 316188.
  6. Han MK, Agusti A, Calverley PM, Celli BR, Criner G, Curtis JL, Fabbri LM, Goldin JG, Jones PW, Macnee W, Make BJ, Rabe KF, Rennard SI, Sciurba FC, Silverman EK, Vestbo J, Washko GR, Wouters EF, Martinez FJ (2010). "Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease phenotypes: the future of COPD". Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 182 (5): 598–604. doi:10.1164/rccm.200912-1843CC. PMID 20522794.

Linked-in.jpg